* NEW* A CLASSICAL CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE TO 1453 AD

A CLASSICAL CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE,

FROM THE CREATION OF THE WORLD

TO THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE WEST, AND

THEN THE FALL OF THE EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE EAST

BY J. LEMPRIERE, D.D.


In the following table, I have confined myself to the more easy and convenient eras of before (B.C.) and after (A.D.) Christ. For the sake of those, however, that do not wish the exclusion of the Julian period, it is necessary to observe that, as the first year of the christian era always falls on the 4714th of the Julian years, the number required either before or after Christ will easily be discovered by the application of the rules of subtraction or addition. The era from the foundation of Rome (A.U.C.) will be found with the same facility, by recollecting that the city was built 753 years before Christ; and the Olympiads can likewise be recurred to by the consideration that the conquest of Corœbus (B.C. 776) forms the first Olympiad, and that the Olympic games were celebrated after the revolution of four years.

Before
Christ.¹
The world created in the 710th year of the Julian period4004
The deluge2348
The tower of Babel built, and the confusion of languages2247
Celestial observations are first made at Babylon2234
The kingdom of Egypt is supposed to have begun under Misraim the son of Ham, and to have continued 1663 years, to the conquest of Cambyses2188
The kingdom of Sicyon established2089
The kingdom of Assyria begins2059
The birth of Abraham1996
The kingdom of Argos established under Inachus1856
Memnon the Egyptian said to invent letters, 15 years before the reign of Phoroneus1822
The deluge of Ogyges, by which Attica remained waste above 200 years, till the coming of Cecrops1764
Joseph sold into Egypt by his brethren1728
The chronology of the Arundelian marbles begins about this time, fixing here the arrival of Cecrops in Attica, an epoch which other writers have placed later by 26 years1582
Moses born1571
The kingdom of Athens begun under Cecrops, who came from Egypt with a colony of Saites. This happened about 780 years before the first Olympiad1556
Scamander migrates from Crete, and begins the kingdom of Troy1546
The deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly1503
The Panathenæa first celebrated at Athens1495
Cadmus comes into Greece, and builds the citadel of Thebes1493
The first Olympic games celebrated in Elis by the Idæi Dactyli1453
The five books of Moses written in the land of Moab, where he dies the following year, aged 1101452
Minos flourishes in Crete, and iron is found by the Dactyli by the accidental burning of the woods of Ida, in Crete1406
The Eleusinian mysteries introduced at Athens by Eumolpus1356
The Isthmian games first instituted by Sisyphus king of Corinth1326
The Argonautic expedition. The first Pythian games celebrated by Adrastus king of Argos1263
Gideon flourishes in Israel1245
The Theban war of the seven heroes against Eteocles1225
Olympic games celebrated by Hercules1222
The rape of Helen by Theseus, and, 15 years after, by Paris1213
Troy taken, after a siege of 10 years. Æneas sails to Italy1184
Alba Longa built by Ascanius1152
Migration of the Æolian colonies1124
The return of the Heraclidæ into Peloponnesus, 80 years after the taking of Troy. Two years after, they divide the Peloponnesus among themselves; and here, therefore, begins the kingdom of Lacedæmon under Eurysthenes and Procles1104
Saul made king over Israel1095
The kingdom of Sicyon ended1088
The kingdom of Athens ended in the death of Codrus1070
The migration of the Ionian colonies from Greece, and their settlement in Asia Minor1044
Dedication of Solomon’s temple1004
Samos built986
Division of the kingdom of Judah and Israel975
Homer and Hesiod flourished about this time, according to the marbles907
Elias the prophet taken up into heaven896
Lycurgus, 42 years old, establishes his laws at Lacedæmon, and, together with Iphitus and Cleosthenes, restores the Olympic games at Elis, about 108 years before the era which is commonly called the first Olympiad884
Phidon king of Argos is supposed to have invented scales and measures, and coined silver at Ægina. Carthage built by Dido869
Fall of the Assyrian empire by the death of Sardanapalus, an era placed 80 years earlier by Justin820
The kingdom of Macedonia begins, and continues 646 years, till the battle of Pydna814
The kingdom of Lydia begins, and continues 249 years797
The triremes first invented by the Corinthians786
The monarchical government abolished at Corinth, and the Prytanes elected779
Corœbus conquers at Olympia, in the 28th Olympiad from the institution of Iphitus. This is vulgarly called the first Olympiad, about 23 years before the foundation of Rome776
The Ephori introduced into the government of Lacedæmon by Theopompus760
Isaiah begins to prophesy757
The decennial archons begin at Athens, of which Charops is the first754
Rome built on the 20th of April, according to Varro, in the year 3961 of the Julian period753
The rape of the Sabines750
The era of Nabonassar king of Babylon begins747
The first Messenian war begins, and continues 19 years, to the taking of Ithome743
Syracuse built by a Corinthian colony732
The kingdom of Israel finished by the taking of Samaria by Salmanasar king of Assyria. The first eclipse of the moon on record March 19th, according to Ptolemy721
Candaules murdered by Gyges, who succeeds to the Lydian throne718
Tarentum built by the Parthenians707
Corcyra built by the Corinthians703
The second Messenian war begins, and continues 14 years, to the taking of Ira, after a siege of 11 years. About this time flourished the poets Tyrtæus and Archilochus685
The government of Athens intrusted to annual archons684
Alba destroyed665
Cypselus usurps the government of Corinth, and keeps it for 30 years659
Byzantium built by a colony of Argives or Athenians658
Cyrene built by Battus630
The Scythians invade Asia Minor, of which they keep possession for 28 years624
Draco established his laws at Athens623
The canal between the Nile and the Red sea begun by king Necho610
Nineveh taken and destroyed by Cyaxares and his allies606
The Phœnicians sail round Africa, by order of Necho. About this time flourished Arion, Pittacus, Alcæus, Sappho, &c.604
The Scythians are expelled from Asia Minor by Cyaxares596
The Pythian games first established at Delphi. About this time flourished Chilo, Anacharsis, Thales, Epimenides, Solon, the prophet Ezekiel, Æsop, Stersichorus591
Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar, 9th of June, after a siege of 18 months587
The Isthmian games restored and celebrated every first and third year of the Olympiads582
Death of Jeremiah the prophet577
The Nemæan games restored568
The first comedy acted at Athens by Susarion and Dolon562
Pisistratus first usurped the sovereignty at Athens560
Cyrus begins to reign. About this time flourished Anaximenes, Bias, Anaximander, Phalaris, and Cleobulus559
Crœsus conquered by Cyrus. About this time flourished Theognis and Pherecydes548
Marseilles built by the Phocæans. The age of Pythagoras, Simonides, Thespis, Xenophanes, and Anacreon539
Babylon taken by Cyrus538
The return of the Jews by the edict of Cyrus, and the rebuilding of the temple536
The first tragedy acted at Athens on the waggon of Thespis535
Learning encouraged at Athens, and a public library built526
Egypt conquered by Cambyses525
Polycrates of Samos put to death522
Darius Hystaspes chosen king of Persia. About this time flourished Confucius the celebrated Chinese philosopher521
The tyranny of the Pisistratidæ abolished at Athens510
The consular government begins at Rome after the expulsion of the Tarquins, and continues independent 461 years, till the battle of Pharsalia509
Sardis taken by the Athenians and burnt, which became afterwards the cause of the invasion of Greece by the Persians. About this time flourished Heraclitus, Parmenides, Milo the wrestler, Aristagoras, &c.504
The first dictator, Lartius, created at Rome498
The Roman populace retire to mount Sacer493
The battle of Marathon490
The battles of Thermopylæ, August 7th, and Salamis, October 20th. About this time flourished Æschylus, Pindar, Charon, Anaxagoras, Zeuxis, Aristides, &c.480
The Persians defeated at Platæa and Mycale on the same day, 22nd September479
The 300 Fabii killed at Cremera, July 17th477
Themistocles, accused of conspiracy, flies to Xerxes471
The Persians defeated at Cyprus, and near the Eurymedon470
The third Messenian war begins, and continues 10 years465
Egypt revolts from the Persians under Inarus, assisted by the Athenians463
The Romans send to Athens for Solon’s laws. About this time flourished Sophocles, Nehemiah the prophet, Plato the comic poet, Aristarchus the tragic, Leocrates, Thrasybulus, Pericles, Zaleucus, &c.454
The first Sacred war concerning the temple of Delphi448
The Athenians defeated at Chæronea by the Bœotians447
Herodotus reads his history to the council of Athens, and receives public honours in the 39th year of his age. About this time flourished Empedocles, Hellanicus, Euripides, Herodicus, Phidias Artemones, Charondas, &c.445
A colony sent to Thurium by the Athenians444
Comedies prohibited at Athens, a restraint which remained in force for three years440
A war between Corinth and Corcyra439
Meton begins here his 19 years’ cycle of the moon432
The Peloponnesian war begins, May the 7th, and continues about 27 years. About this time flourished Cratinus, Eupolis, Aristophanes, Meton, Euctemon, Malachi the last of the prophets, Democritus, Gorgias, Thucydides, Hippocrates, &c.431
The history of the Old Testament finishes about this time. A plague at Athens for five years430
A peace of 50 years made between the Athenians and Lacedæmonians, which is kept only during six years and ten months, though each continued at war with the other’s allies421
The scene of the Peloponnesian war changed to Sicily. The Agrarian law first moved at Rome416
Egypt revolts from the Persians, and Amyrtæus is appointed king414
The Carthaginians enter Sicily, where they destroy Selinus and Himera, but they are repulsed by Hermocrates409
The battle of Ægospotamos. The usurpation of Dionysius405
Athens taken by Lysander, 24th of April. The end of the Peloponnesian war, and the appointment of 30 tyrants over the conquered city. About this time flourished Parrhasius, Protagoras, Lysias, Agathon, Euclid, Cebes, Telestes, &c.404
Cyrus the younger killed at Cunaxa. The glorious retreat of the 10,000 Greeks, and the expulsion of the 30 tyrants from Athens by Thrasybulus401
Socrates put to death400
Agesilaus of Lacedæmon’s expedition into Asia against the Persians. The age of Xenophon, Ctesias, Zeuxis, Antisthenes, Evagoras, Aristippus of Cyrene, and Archytas396
The Corinthian war begun by the alliance of the Athenians, Thebans, Corinthians, and Argives, against Lacedæmon395
The Lacedæmonians, under Pisander, defeated by Conon at Cnidus; and, a few days after, the allies are defeated at Coronæa, by Agesilaus394
The battle of Allia, July 17th, and the taking of Rome by the Gauls390
Dionysius besieges Rhegium, and takes it after 11 months. About this time flourished Plato, Philoxenus, Damon, Pythias, Iphicrates, &c.388
The Greek cities of Asia tributary to Persia, by the peace of Antalcidas, between the Lacedæmonians and Persians387
The war of Cyprus finished by a treaty, after it had continued two years385
The Lacedæmonians defeated in a sea-fight at Naxos, September 20th, by Chabrias. About this time flourished Philistus, Isæus, Isocrates, Arete, Philolaus, Diogenes the cynic, &c.377
Artaxerxes sends an army under Pharnabazus, with 20,000 Greeks, commanded by Iphicrates374
The battle of Leuctra, July 8th, where the Lacedæmonians are defeated by Epaminondas the general of the Thebans371
The Messenians, after a banishment of 300 years, return to Peloponnesus370
One of the consuls at Rome elected from the plebeians367
The battle of Mantinea gained by Epaminondas, a year after the death of Pelopidas363
Agesilaus assists Tachos king of Egypt. Some of the governors of Lesser Asia revolt from Persia362
The Athenians are defeated at Methone, the first battle that Philip of Macedon ever won in Greece360
Dionysius the younger is expelled from Syracuse by Dion. The second Sacred war begins, on the temple of Delphi being attacked by the Phocians357
Dion put to death, and Syracuse governed seven years by tyrants. About this time flourished Eudoxus, Lycurgus, Ibis, Theopompus, Ephorus, Datames, Philomelus, &c.354
The Phocians, under Onomarchus, are defeated in Thessaly by Philip353
Egypt is conquered by Ochus350
The Sacred war is finished by Philip taking all the cities of the Phocians348
Dionysius recovers the tyranny of Syracuse, after 10 years’ banishment347
Timoleon recovers Syracuse and banishes the tyrant343
The Carthaginians defeated by Timoleon near Agrigentum. About this time flourished Speusippus, Protogenes, Aristotle, Æschines, Zenocrates, Demosthenes, Phocion, Mamercus, Icetas, Stilpo, Demades340
The battle of Cheronæa, August 2nd, where Philip defeats the Athenians and Thebans338
Philip of Macedon killed by Pausanius. His son Alexander, on the following year, enters Greece, destroys Thebes, &c.336
The battle of the Granicus, 22nd of May334
The battle of Issus in October333
Tyre and Egypt conquered by the Macedonian prince, and Alexandria built332
The battle of Arbela, October 2nd331
Alexander’s expedition against Porus. About this time flourished Apelles, Callisthenes, Bagoas, Parmenio, Philotas, Memnon, Dinocrates, Calippus, Hyperides, Philetus, Lysippus, Menedemus, &c.327
Alexander dies on the 21st of April. His empire is divided into four kingdoms. The Samian war, and the reign of the Ptolemies in Egypt323
Polyperchon publishes a general liberty to all the Greek cities. The age of Praxiteles, Crates, Theophrastus, Menander, Demetrius, Dinarchus, Polemon, Neoptolemus, Perdiccas, Leosthenes320
Syracuse and Sicily usurped by Agathocles. Demetrius Phalereus governs Athens for 10 years317
Eumenes delivered to Antigonus by his army315
Seleucus takes Babylon, and here the beginning of the era of the Seleucidæ312
The conquests of Agathocles in Africa309
Democracy established at Athens by Demetrius Poliorcetes307
The title of kings first assumed by the successors of Alexander306
The battle of Ipsus, where Antigonus is defeated and killed by Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, and Cassander. About this time flourished Zeno, Pyrrho, Philemon, Megasthenes, Crantor, &c.301
Athens taken by Demetrius Poliorcetes, after a year’s siege296
The first sun-dial erected at Rome by Papirius Cursor, and the time first divided into hours293
Seleucus, about this time, built about 40 cities in Asia, which he peopled with different nations. The age of Euclid the mathematician, Arcesilaus, Epicurus, Bion, Timocharis, Erasistratus, Aristyllus, Strato, Zenodotus, Arsinoe, Lachares, &c.291
The Athenians revolt from Demetrius287
Pyrrhus expelled from Macedon by Lysimachus286
The Pharos of Alexandria built. The Septuagint supposed to be translated about this time284
Lysimachus defeated and killed by Seleucus. The Tarentine war begins, and continues 10 years. The Achæan league begins281
Pyrrhus of Epirus goes to Italy to assist the Tarentines280
The Gauls, under Brennus, are cut to pieces near the temple of Delphi. About this time flourished Dionysius the astronomer, Sostratus, Theocritus, Dionysius Heracleotes, Philo, Aratus, Lycophron, Persæus, &c.278
Pyrrhus, defeated by Curius, retires to Epirus274
The first coining of silver at Rome269
Athens taken by Antigonus Gonatas, who keeps it 12 years268
The first Punic war begins, and continues for 23 years. The chronology of the Arundelian marbles composed. About this time flourished Lycon, Crates, Berosus, Hermachus, Helenus, Clinias, Aristotimus, &c.264
Antiochus Soter defeated at Sardis by Eumenes of Pergamus262
The Carthaginian fleet defeated by Duilius260
Regulus defeated by Xanthippus. Athens is restored to liberty by Antigonus256
Aratus persuades the people of Sicyon to join the Achæan league. About this time flourished Cleanthes, Homer junior, Manetho, Timæus, Callimachus, Zoilus, Duris, Neanthes, Ctesibius, Sosibius, Hieronymus, Hanno, Laodice, Lysias, Ariobarzanes251
The Parthians under Arsaces, and the Bactrians under Theodotus, revolt from the Macedonians250
The sea-fight of Drepanum249
The citadel of Corinth taken by Aratus, 12th of August243
Agis king of Sparta put to death for attempting to settle an Agrarian law. About this period flourished Antigonus Carystius, Conon of Samos, Eratosthenes, Apollonius of Perga, Lacydes, Hamilcar, Agesilaus the ephor, &c.241
Plays first acted at Rome, being those of Livius Andronicus240
Hamilcar passes with an army to Spain, with Hannibal his son237
The temple of Janus shut at Rome, the first time since Numa235
The Sardinian war begins, and continues three years234
Original manuscripts of Æschylus, Euripides, and Sophocles, lent by the Athenians to Ptolemy for a pledge of 15 talents233
The first divorce known at Rome, by Spurius Carvilius. Sardinia and Corsica conquered231
The Roman ambassadors first appeared at Athens and Corinth228
The war between Cleomenes and Aratus begins, and continues for five years227
The colossus of Rhodes thrown down by an earthquake. The Romans first cross the Po, pursuing the Gauls, who had entered Italy. About this time flourished Chrysippus, Polystratus, Euphorion, Archimedes, Valerius Messala, C. Nævius, Aristarchus, Apollonius, Philocorus, Aristo Ceus, Fabius Pictor the first Roman historian, Philarchus, Lysiades, Agro, &c.224
The battle of Sellasia222
The Social war between the Ætolians and Achæans, assisted by Philip220
Saguntum taken by Hannibal219
The second Punic war begins, and continues 17 years218
The battle of the lake Thrasymenus, and next year that of Cannæ, May 21st217
The Romans begin the auxiliary war against Philip in Epirus, which is continued by intervals for 14 years214
Syracuse taken by Marcellus, after a siege of three years212
Philopœmen defeats Machanidas at Mantinea208
Asdrubal is defeated. About this time flourished Plautus, Archagathus, Evander, Teleclus, Hermippus, Zeno, Sotion, Ennius, Hieronymus of Syracuse, Tlepolemus, Epicydes207
The battle of Zama202
The first Macedonian war begins and continues near four years200
The battle of Panius, where Antiochus defeats Scopas198
The battle of Cynoscephale, where Philip is defeated197
The war of Antiochus the Great begins, and continues three years192
Lacedæmon joined to the Achæan league by Philopœmen191
The luxuries of Asia brought to Rome in the spoils of Antiochus189
The laws of Lycurgus abrogated for a while at Sparta by Philopœmen188
Antiochus the Great defeated and killed in Media. About this time flourished Aristophanes of Byzantium, Asclepiades, Tegula, C. Lælius, Aristonymus, Hegesinus, Diogenes the stoic, Critolaus, Massinissa, the Scipios, the Gracchi, Thoas, &c.187
A war, which continues for one year, between Eumenes and Prusias, till the death of Hannibal184
Philopœmen defeated and killed by Dinocrates183
Numa’s books found in a stone coffin at Rome179
Perseus sends his ambassadors to Carthage175
Ptolemy’s generals defeated by Antiochus, in a battle between Pelusium and mount Cassius. The second Macedonian war171
The battle of Pydna, and the fall of the Macedonian empire. About this period flourished Attalus the astronomer, Metrodorus, Terence, Crates, Polybius, Pacuvius, Hipparchus, Heraclides, Carneades, Aristarchus, &c.168
The first library erected at Rome, with books obtained from the plunder of Macedonia167
Terence’s Andria first acted at Rome166
Time measured out at Rome by a water-machine, invented by Scipio Nasica, 134 years after the introduction of sun-dials159
Andriscus the Pseudophilip assumes the royalty of Macedonia152
Demetrius king of Syria defeated and killed by Alexander Balas150
The third Punic war begins. Prusias king of Bithynia put to death by his son Nicomedes149
The Romans make war against the Achæans, which is finished the next year by Mummius148
Carthage is destroyed by Scipio, and Corinth by Mummius  ‘Mummus’ replaced with ‘Mummius’147
Viriathus is defeated by Lælius, in Spain146
The war of Numantia begins, and continues for eight years141
The Roman army of 30,000, under Mancinus, is defeated by 4000 Numantines138
Restoration of learning at Alexandria, and universal patronage offered to all learned men by Ptolemy Physcon. The age of Satyrus, Aristobulus, Lucius Accius, Mnaseas, Antipater, Diodorus the peripatetic, Nicander, Ctesibius, Sarpedon, Micipsa, &c.137
The famous embassy of Scipio, Metellus, Mummius, and Panætius, into Egypt, Syria, and Greece136
The history of the Apocrypha ends. The Servile war in Sicily begins, and continues for three years135
Numantia taken. Pergamus annexed to the Roman empire133
Antiochus Sidetes killed by Phraates. Aristonicus defeated by Perpenna130
Demetrius Nicator defeated at Damascus by Alexander Zebina127
The Romans make war against the pirates of the Beleares. Carthage is rebuilt by order of the Roman senate123
Caius Gracchus killed121
Dalmatia conquered by Metellus118
Cleopatra assumes the government of Egypt. The age of Erymnæus, Athenion, Artemidorus, Clitomachus, Apollonius, Herodicus, Lucius Cælius, Castor, Menecrates, Lucilius, &c.116
The Jugurthine war begins, and continues for five years111
The famous sumptuary law at Rome, which limited the expenses of eating every day110
The Teutones and Cimbri begin their war against Rome, and continue it for eight years109
The Teutones defeat 80,000 Romans on the banks of the Rhone105
The Teutones defeated by Caius Marius at Aquæ Sextiæ102
The Cimbri defeated by Marius and Catulus101
Dolabella conquers Lusitania99
Cyrene left by Ptolemy Apion to the Romans97
The Social war begins, and continues three years, till finished by Sylla91
The Mithridatic war begins, and continues 26 years89
The civil wars of Marius and Sylla begin, and continue six years88
Sylla conquers Athens, and sends its valuable libraries to Rome86
Young Marius is defeated by Sylla, who is made dictator82
The death of Sylla. About this time flourished Philo, Charmidas, Asclepiades, Apellicon, Lucius Sisenna, Alexander Polyhistor, Plotius Gallus, Diotimus, Zeno, Hortensius, Archias, Posidonius, Geminus, &c.78
Bithynia left by Nicomedes to the Romans75
The Servile war, under Spartacus, begins, and, two years after, the rebel general is defeated and killed by Pompey and Crassus73
Mithridates and Tigranes defeated by Lucullus69
Mithridates conquered by Pompey in a night battle. Crete is subdued by Metellus, after a war of two years66
The reign of the Seleucidæ ends in Syria, on the conquest of the country by Pompey65
Catiline’s conspiracy detected by Cicero. Mithridates kills himself63
The first triumvirate in the person of Julius Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus. About this time flourished Apollonius of Rhodes, Terentius Varro, Tyrannion, Aristodemus of Nysa, Lucretius, Dionysius the grammarian, Cicero, Antiochus, Spurinus, Andronicus, Catullus, Sallust, Timagenes, Cratippus, &c.60
Cicero banished from Rome, and recalled the next year58
Cæsar passes the Rhine, defeats the Germans, and invades Britain55
Crassus is killed by Surena, in June53
Civil war between Cæsar and Pompey50
The battle of Pharsalia about May 12th48
Alexander taken by Cæsar47
The war of Africa. Cato kills himself. This year is called the year of confusion, because the calendar was corrected by Sosigenes, and the year made to consist of 15 months, or 445 days46
The battle of Munda45
Cæsar murdered44
The battle of Mutina. The second triumvirate in Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus. Cicero put to death. The age of Sosigenes, Cornelius Nepos, Diodorus Siculus, Trogus Pompey, Didymus the scholiast, Varro the poet, &c.43
The battle of Philippi42
Pacorus general of Parthia defeated by Ventidius, 14 years after the disgrace of Crassus, and on the same day39
Pompey the younger defeated in Sicily by Octavius36
Octavius and Antony prepare for war32
The battle of Actium, 2nd September. The era of the Roman emperors properly begins here31
Alexander taken, and Egypt reduced into a Roman province30
The title of Augustus given to Octavius27
The Egyptians adopt the Julian year. About this time flourished Virgil, Manilius, Dioscorides, Asinius Pollio, Mæcenas, Agrippa, Strabo, Horace, Macer, Propertius, Livy, Musa, Tibullus, Ovid, Pylades, Bathyllus, Varius, Tucca, Vitruvius, &c.25
The conspiracy of Muræna against Augustus22
Augustus visits Greece and Asia21
The Roman ensigns recovered from the Parthians by Tiberius20
The secular games celebrated at Rome17
Lollius defeated by the Germans16
The Rhæti and Vindelici defeated by Drusus15
The Pannonians conquered by Tiberius12
Some of the German nations conquered by Drusus11
Augustus corrects the calendar, by ordering the 12 ensuing years to be without intercalation. About this time flourished Damascenus, Hyginus, Flaccus the grammarian, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and Dionysius the geographer8
Tiberius retires to Rhodes for seven years6
Our Saviour is born, four years before the vulgar era, in the year 4709 of the Julian period, A.U.C. 749, and the fourth of the 193rd Olympiad4
Tiberius returns to RomeA.D.
2
The leap year corrected, having formerly been every third year4
Ovid banished to Tomos9
Varus defeated and killed in Germany by Arminius10
Augustus dies at Nola, August 19th, and is succeeded by Tiberius. The age of Phædrus, Asinius Gallus, Velleius Paterculus, Germanicus, Cornel. Celsus, &c.14
Twelve cities in Asia destroyed by an earthquake17
Germanicus, poisoned by Piso, dies at Antioch19
Tiberius goes to Capreæ26
Sejanus disgraced31
Our Saviour crucified, Friday, April 3rd. This is put four years earlier by some chronologists33
St. Paul converted to Christianity35
Tiberius dies at Misenum, near Baiæ, March 16th, and is succeeded by Caligula. About this time flourished Valerius Maximus, Columella, Pomponius Mela, Appion, Philo Judæus, Artabanus, and Agrippina37
St. Matthew writes his Gospel39
The name of christians first given, at Antioch, to the followers of our Saviour40
Caligula murdered by Chæreas, and succeeded by Claudius41
The expedition of Claudius into Britain43
St. Mark writes his Gospel44
Secular games celebrated at Rome47
Caractacus carried in chains to Rome51
Claudius succeeded by Nero54
Agrippina put to death by her son Nero59
First persecution against the christians64
Seneca, Lucan, and others put to death65
Nero visits Greece. The Jewish war begins. The age of Persius, Quintus Curtius, Pliny the elder, Josephus, Frontinus, Burrhus, Corbulo, Thrasea, Boadicea, &c.66
St. Peter and St. Paul put to death67
Nero dies, and is succeeded by Galba68
Galba put to death. Otho, defeated by Vitellius, kills himself. Vitellius is defeated by Vespasian’s army69
Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus70
The Parthians revolt77
Death of Vespasian, and succession of Titus. Herculaneum and Pompeii destroyed by an eruption of mount Vesuvius, November 1st79
Death of Titus, and succession of Domitian. The age of Silius Italicus, Martial, Apollon. Tyanæus, Valerius Flaccus, Solinus, Epictetus, Quintilian, Lupus, Agricola, &c.81
Capitoline games instituted by Domitian, and celebrated every fourth year86
Secular games celebrated. The war with Dacia begins, and continues 15 years88
Second persecution of the christians95
Domitian put to death by Stephanus, &c., and succeeded by Nerva. The age of Juvenal, Tacitus, Statius, &c.96
Nerva dies, and is succeeded by Trajan98
Pliny proconsul of Bithynia sends Trajan an account of the christians102
Dacia reduced to a Roman province103
Trajan’s expedition against Parthia. About this time flourished Florus, Suetonius, Pliny junior, Philo Biblius, Dion, Prusæus, Plutarch, &c.106
Third persecution of the christians107
Trajan’s column erected at Rome114
Trajan dies, and is succeeded by Adrian117
Fourth persecution of the christians118
Adrian builds a wall in Britain121
Adrian visits Asia and Egypt for seven years126
He rebuilds Jerusalem, and raises there a temple to Jupiter130
The Jews rebel, and are defeated after a war of five years, and all banished131
Adrian dies, and is succeeded by Antoninus Pius. In the reign of Adrian flourished Teon, Phavorinus, Phlegon, Trallian, Aristides, Aquila, Salvius Julian, Polycarp, Arian, Ptolemy, &c.138
Antoninus defeats the Moors, Germans, and Dacians145
The worship of Serapis brought to Rome146
Antoninus dies, and is succeeded by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, the last of whom reigned nine years. In the reign of Antoninus flourished Maximus Tyrius, Pausanias, Diophantus, Lucian, Hermogenes, Polyænus, Appian, Artemidorus, Justin the martyr, Apuleius, &c.161
A war with Parthia, which continues three years162
A war against the Marcomanni, which continues five years169
Another, which continues three years177
Marcus Aurelius dies, and Commodus succeeds. In the last reign flourished Galen, Athenagoras, Tatian, Athenæus, Montanus, Diogenes, Laërtius180
Commodus makes peace with the Germans181
Commodus put to death by Martia and Lætus. He is succeeded for a few months by Pertinax, who is murdered 193; and four rivals arise, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Severus, and Albinus. Under Commodus flourished Julius Pollux, Theodotion, St. Irenæus, &c.192
Niger is defeated by Severus at Issus194
Albinus defeated in Gaul, and killed at Lyons, February 19th198
Severus conquers the Parthians200
Fifth persecution against the christians202
Severus visits Britain, and two years after builds a wall there across from the Frith of Forth207
Severus dies at York, and is succeeded by Caracalla and Geta. In his reign flourished Tertullian, Minutius Felix, Papinianus, Clemens of Alexandria, Philostratus, Plotianus, and Bulas211
Geta killed by his brother Caracalla212
The Septuagint discovered. Caracalla murdered by Macrinus. Flourished Oppian217
Opilius Macrinus killed by the soldiers, and succeeded by Heliogabalus  ‘Macrinius’ replaced with ‘Macrinus’218
Alexander Severus succeeds Heliogabalus. The Goths then exacted an annual payment not to invade or molest the Roman empire. The age of Julius Africanus222
The Arsacidæ of Parthia are conquered by Artaxerxes king of Media, and their empire destroyed229
Alexander defeats the Persians234
The sixth persecution against the christians235
Alexander killed and succeeded by Maximinus. At that time flourished Dion Cassius, Origen, and Ammonius235
The two Gordians succeeded Maximinus, and are put to death by Pupienus, who soon after is destroyed, with Balbinus, by the soldiers of the younger Gordian236
Sarbinianus defeated in Africa240
Gordian marches against the Persians242
He is put to death by Philip, who succeeds, and makes peace with Sapor the next year. About this time flourished Censorius, and Gregory Thaumaturgus244
Philip killed, and succeeded by Decius. Herodian flourished249
The seventh persecution against the christians250
Decius succeeded by Gallus251
A great pestilence over the empire252
Gallus dies, and is succeeded by Æmilianus, Valerianus, and Gallienus. In the reign of Gallus flourished St. Cyprian and Plotinus254
The eighth persecution against the christians257
The empire is harassed by 30 tyrants successively258
Valerian is taken by Sapor and flayed alive (or put to work)260
Odenatus governs the east for Gallienus264
The Scythians and Goths defeated by Cleodamus and Athenæus267
Gallienus killed, and succeeded by Claudius. In this reign flourished Longinus, Paulus Samosatenus, &c.268
Claudius conquers the Goths, and kills 300,000 of them. Zenobia takes possession of Egypt269
Aurelian succeeds270
The ninth persecution against the christians272
Zenobia defeated by Aurelian at Edessa273
Dacia ceded to the Barbarians by the emperor274
Aurelian killed, and succeeded by Tacitus, who died after a reign of six months, and was succeeded by Florianus, and, two months after, by Probus275
Probus makes an expedition into Gaul277
He defeats the Persians in the east280
Probus is put to death, and succeeded by Carus, and his sons Carinus and Numerianus282
Diocletian succeeds284
The empire attacked by the Barbarians of the north. Diocletian takes Maximianus as his imperial colleague286
Britain recovered, after a tyrant’s usurpation of 10 years. Alexandria taken by Diocletian296
The tenth persecution against the christians, which continues 10 years303
Diocletian and Maximianus abdicate the empire, and live in retirement, succeeded by Constantius Chlorus and Galerius Maximianus the two Cæsars. About this period flourished Julius Capitolinus, Arnobius, Gregory and Hermogenes the lawyers, Ælius Spartianus, Hierocles, Flavius Vopiscus, Trebellius Pollio, &c.304
Constantius dies, and is succeeded by his son306
At this time there were four emperors, Constantine, Licinius, Maximianus, and Maxentius308
Maxentius defeated and killed by Constantine312
The emperor Constantine begins to favour the christian religion319
Licinius defeated and banished by Constantine324
The first general Council of Nice, composed of 318 bishops, who sit from June 19th to August 25th325
The seat of the empire removed from Rome to Constantinople328
Constantinople solemnly dedicated by the emperor on the 11th of May330
Constantine orders all the heathen temples to be destroyed331
The death of Constantine, and succession of his three sons, Constantinus, Constans, and Constantius. In the reign of Constantine flourished Lactantius, Athanasius, Arius, and Eusebius337
Constantine the younger defeated and killed by Constans at Aquilea340
Constans killed in Spain by Magnentius350
Gallus put to death by Constantius354
One hundred and fifty cities of Greece and Asia ruined by an earthquake358
Constantius and Julian quarrel, and prepare for war; but the former dies the next year, and leaves the latter sole emperor. About this period flourished Ælius Donatus, Eutropius, Libanius, Ammian. Marcellinus, Jamblicus, St. Hilary, &c.360
Julian dies, and is succeeded by Jovian. In Julian’s reign flourished Gregory Nazienzen, Themistius, Aurelius Victor, &c.363
Upon the death of Jovian, and the succession of Valens and Valentinian, the empire is divided, the former being emperor of the east, and the latter of the west364
Gratian taken as partner in the western empire by Valentinian367
Firmus tyrant of Africa defeated373
Valentinian II. succeeds Valentinian I.375
The Goths permitted to settle in Thrace, on being expelled by the Huns376
Theodosius the Great succeeds Valens in the eastern empire. The Lombards first leave Scandinavia and defeat the Vandals379
Gratian defeated and killed by Andragathius383
The tyrant Maximus defeated and put to death by Theodosius388
Eugenius usurps the western empire, and is two years after defeated by Theodosius392
Theodosius dies, and is succeeded by his sons, Arcadius in the east and Honorius in the west. In the reign of Theodosius flourished Ausonius, Eunapius, Pappus, Theon, Prudentius, St. Austin, St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, &c.395
Gildo, defeated by his own brother, kills himself398
Stilicho defeats 200,000 of the Goths at Fesulæ405
The Vandals, Alani, and Suevi permitted to settle in Spain and France by Honorius406
Theodosius the younger succeeds Arcadius in the east, having Isdegerdes king of Persia as his guardian, appointed by his father408
Rome plundered by Alaric king of the Visigoths, August 24th410
The Vandals begin their kingdom in Spain412
The kingdoms of the Burgundians is begun in Alsace413
The Visigoths found a kingdom at Toulouse415
The Alani defeated and extirpated by the Goths417
The kingdom of the French begins on the Lower Rhine420
The death of Honorius, and succession of Valentinian III. Under Honorius flourished Sulpicius Severus, Macrobius, Anianus, Panodorus, Stobæus, Servius the commentator, Hypatia, Pelagius, Synesius, Cyrill, Orosius, Socrates, &c.423
Theodosius establishes public schools at Constantinople, and attempts the restoration of learning425
The Romans take leave of Britain and never return426
Pannonia recovered from the Huns by the Romans. The Vandals pass into Africa427
The French defeated by Ætius428
The Theodosian code published435
Genseric the Vandal takes Carthage, and begins the kingdom of the Vandals in Africa439
The Britons, abandoned by the Romans, make their celebrated complaint to Ætius against the Picts and Scots, and three years after the Saxons settle in Britain, upon the invitation of Vortigern446
Attila king of the Huns ravages Europe447
Theodosius II. dies, and is succeeded by Marcianus. About this time flourished Zozimus, Nestorius, Theodoret, Sozomen, Olympiodorus, &c.450
The city of Venice first began to be known452
Death of Valentinian III., who is succeeded by Maximus for two months, by Avitus for 10, and, after an interregnum of 10 months, by Majorianus454
Rome taken by Genseric in July. The kingdom of Kent first established455
The Suevi defeated by Theodoric on the Ebro456
Marcianus dies, and is succeeded by Leo, surnamed the Thracian. Vortimer defeated by Hengist at Crayford, in Kent457
Severus succeeds in the western empire461
The paschal cycle of 532 years invented by Victorius of Aquitain463
Anthemius succeeds in the western empire, after an interregnum of two years  ‘Athemius’ replaced with ‘Anthemius’467
Olybrius succeeds Anthemius, and is succeeded, the next year, by Glycerius, and Glycerius by Nepos472
Nepos is succeeded by Augustulus. Leo junior, son of Ariadne, though an infant, succeeds his grandfather Leo in the eastern empire, and, some months after, is succeeded by his father Zeno474
The western empire is destroyed by Odoacer king of the Heruli, who assumes the title of king of Italy. About this time flourished Eutyches, Prosper, Victorius, Sidonius Apollinaris476
Constantinople partly destroyed by an earthquake, which lasted 40 days at intervals480
The battle of Soissons and victory of Clovis over Siagrius the Roman general485
After the death of Zeno in the east, Ariadne married Anastasius, surnamed the Silentiary, who ascends the vacant throne491
Theodoric king of the Ostrogoths revolts about this time, and conquers Italy from the Heruli. About this time flourished Boethius and Symmachus493
Christianity embraced in France by the baptism of Clovis496
The Burgundian laws published by king Gondebaud501
Alaric defeated by Clovis at the battle of Vorcillè near Poitiers507
Paris made the capital of the French dominions510
Constantinople besieged by Vitalianus, whose fleet is burned with a brazen speculum by Proclus514
The computing of time by the christian era, introduced first by Dionysius516
Justin I., a peasant of Dalmatia, makes himself emperor518
Justinian I. nephew of Justin succeeds. Under his glorious reign flourished Belisarius, Jornandes, Paul the Silentiary, Simplicius, Dionysius, Procopius, Proclus, Narses, &c.527
Justinian publishes his celebrated code of laws, and four years after his digest529
Conquest of Africa by Belisarius, and that of Rome, two years after534
Italy is invaded by the Franks538
The Roman consulship suppressed by Justinian542
A great plague, which arose in Africa, and desolated Asia and Europe543
The beginning of the Turkish empire in Asia545
Rome taken and pillaged by Totila547
The manufacture of silk introduced from India into Europe by monks551
Defeat and death of Totila the Gothic king of Italy553
A dreadful plague over Africa, Asia, and Europe, which continues for 50 years558
Justin II., son of Vigilantia the sister of Justinian, succeeds565
Part of Italy conquered by the Lombards from Pannonia, who form a kingdom there568
Tiberius II., an officer of the imperial guards, is adopted, and soon after succeeds578
Latin ceases to be the language of Italy about this time581
Maurice the Cappadocian, son-in-law of Tiberius, succeeds582
Gregory I., surnamed the Great, fills St. Peter’s chair at Rome. The few men of learning who flourished the latter end of this century were Gildas, Agathias, Gregory of Tours the father of French history, Evagrius, and St. Augustin the monk590
Augustin the monk, with 40 others, comes to preach christianity in England597
About this time the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy began in England600
Phocas, a simple centurion, is elected emperor after the revolt of the soldiers, and the murder of Maurice and of his children602
The power of the popes begins to be established by the concessions of Phocas606
Heraclius, an officer in Africa, succeeds, after the murder of the usurper Phocas610
The conquests of Chosroes king of Persia, in Syria, Egypt, Asia Minor, and afterwards his siege of Rome611
The Persians take Jerusalem with the slaughter of 90,000 men, and the next year they overrun Africa614
Mahomet, in his 53rd year, flies from Mecca to Medina, on Friday, July 16th, which forms the first year of the Hegira, the era of the Mahometans622
Constantinople is besieged by the Persians and Arabs626
Death of Mahomet632
Jerusalem taken by the Saracens, and three years after Alexandria and its famous library destroyed637
Constantine III. son of Heraclius, in partnership with Heracleonas, his brother by the same father, assumes the imperial purple. Constantine reigns 103 days, and after his death, his son. Constantine’s son Constans is declared emperor, though Heracleonas, with his mother Martina, wished to continue in possession of the supreme power641
Cyprus taken by the Saracens648
The Saracens take Rhodes, and destroy the Colossus653
Constantine IV., surnamed Pogonatus, succeeds, on the murder of his father in Sicily668
The Saracens ravage Sicily669
Constantinople besieged by the Saracens, whose fleet is destroyed by Greek fire673
Justinian II. succeeds his father Constantine. In his exile of 10 years the purple was usurped by Leontius and Absimerus Tiberius. His restoration happened 704. The men of learning in this century were Secundus, Isidorus, Theophylactus, Georgius Pisides, Callinicus, and the venerable Bede685
Pepin engrosses the power of the whole French monarchy690
Africa finally conquered by the Saracens709
Bardanes, surnamed Philippicus, succeeds at Constantinople, on the murder of Justinian711
Spain is conquered by the Saracens. Accession of Artemius, or Anastasius II., to the throne713
Anastasius abdicates, and is succeeded by Theodosius III., who, two years after, yields to the superior influence of Leo III., the first of the Isaurian dynasty715
Second, but unsuccessful, siege of Constantinople by the Saracens717
Tax called Peter-pence begun by Ina king of Wessex, to support a college at Rome727
Saracens defeated by Charles Martel between Tours and Poitiers in October732
Constantine V., surnamed Copronymus, succeeds his father Leo741
Dreadful pestilence for three years over Europe and Asia746
The computation of years from the birth of Christ first used in historical writings748
Learning encouraged by the race of Abbas caliph of the Saracens749
The Merovingian race of kings ends in France750
Bagdad built, and made the capital of the caliphs of the house of Abbas762
A violent frost for 150 days from October to February763
Monasteries dissolved in the east by Constantine770
Pavia taken by Charlemagne, which ends the kingdom of the Lombards, after a duration of 206 years774
Leo IV. son of Constantine succeeds, and, five years after, is succeeded by his wife Irene and his son Constantine VI.775
Irene murders her son and reigns alone. The men of learning in this century were Johannes Damascenus, Fredegaire, Alcuinus, Paulus Diaconus, and George the monk797
Charlemagne is crowned emperor of Rome and of the western empire. About this time the popes separate themselves from the emperor of Constantinople800
Egbert ascends the throne of England, but the total reduction of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy is not effected till 26 years after801
Nicephorus I., great treasurer of the empire, succeeds802
Stauracius son of Nicephorus, and Michael I., surnamed Rhangabe, the husband of Procopia sister of Stauracius, assume the purple811
Leo V. the Armenian, though but an officer of the palace, ascends the throne of Constantinople813
Learning encouraged among the Saracens by Almanon, who made observations on the sun, &c.816
Michael II. the Thracian, surnamed the Stammerer, succeeds, after the murder of Leo821
The Saracens of Spain take Crete, which they call Candia823
The Almagest of Ptolemy translated into Arabic by order of Almanon827
Theophilus succeeds his father Michael829
Origin of the Hraes’ Princes839
Michael III. succeeds his father Theophilus with his mother Theodora842
The Normans get possession of some cities in France853
Michael is murdered, and succeeded by Basil I. the Macedonian867
Clocks first brought to Constantinople from Venice872
Basil is succeeded by his son Leo VI. the philosopher. In this century flourished Mesué, the Arabian physician Eginhard, Rabanus, Albumasar, Godescalchus, Hincmarus, Odo, Photius, John Scotus, Anastasius the librarian, Alfraganus, Albategni, Reginon, John Asser886
Paris besieged by the Normans, and bravely defended by bishop Goslin887/5
Death of Alfred king of England, after a reign of 30 years900
Alexander brother of Leo succeeds, with his nephew Constantine VII., surnamed Porphyrogenitus911
The Normans establish themselves in France under Rollo912
Romanus I., surnamed Lecapenus, general of the fleet, usurps the throne, with his three sons, Christopher, Stephen, and Constantine VIII.919
Fiefs established in France923
Saracen empire divided by usurpation into seven kingdoms936
Naples seized by the eastern emperors942
The sons of Romanus conspire against their father, and the tumults this occasioned produced the restoration of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus945
Romanus II. son of Constantine VII., by Helena the daughter of Lecapenus, succeeds959
Romanus, poisoned by his wife Theophana, is succeeded by Nicephorus Phocas II., whom the empress, unable to reign alone under the title of protectress of her young children, had married963
Italy conquered by Otho, and united to the German empire964
Nicephorus, at the instigation of Theophana, is murdered by John Tzimiskes, who assumes the purple969
Basil II., and Constantine IX., the two sons of Romanus by Theophana, succeed on the death of Tzimiskes  ‘Theopana’ replaced with ‘Theophana’975
The third or Capetian race of kings in France begins July 3rd987
Arithmetical figures brought into Europe from Arabia/India by the Saracens991
The empire of Germany first made elective by Otho III. The learned men of this century were Eudes de Cluni, Azophi, Luitprand, Alfarabius, Rhazes, Geber, Abbo, Aimoin, Gerbert996
A general massacre of the Danes in England, Nov. 13th1002
All old churches about this time rebuilt in a new manner of architecture1005
Flanders inundated in consequence of a violent storm1014
Constantine becomes sole emperor on the death of his brother1025
Romanus III., surnamed Argyrus, a patrician, succeeds by marrying Zoe the daughter of the late monarch1028
Zoe, after prostituting herself to a Paphlagonian money-lender, causes her husband Romanus to be poisoned, and afterwards marries her favourite, who ascends the throne under the name of Michael IV.1034
The kingdoms of Castile and Arragon begin1035
Zoe adopts for her son Michael V., the trade of whose father (careening vessels) had procured him the surname of Calaphates1041
Zoe and her sister Theodora are made sole empresses by the populace, but after two months Zoe, though 60 years old, takes for her third husband Constantine X., who succeeds1042
The Turks invade the Roman empire1050
After the death of Constantine, Theodora recovers the sovereignty, and, 19 months after, adopts, as her successor, Michael VI., surnamed Stratioticus1054
Isaac Commenus I. chosen emperor by the soldiers1057
Isaac abdicates, and when his brother refuses to succeed him, he appoints his friend Constantine XI., surnamed Ducas1059
Jerusalem conquered by the Turks from the Saracens1065
The crown of England is transferred from the head of Harold by the battle of Hastings, October the 14th, to William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy1066
On the death of Ducas, his wife Eudocia, instead of protecting his three sons, Michael, Andronicus, and Constantine, usurps the sovereignty, and marries Romanus III., surnamed Diogenes1067
Romanus being taken prisoner by the Turks, the three young princes ascend the throne, under the name of Michael Parapinaces VII., Andronicus I., and Constantine XII.1071
The general Nicephorus Botaniates III. assumes the purple1078
Domesday-book begun to be compiled from a general survey of the estates of England, and finished in six years1080
Alexius Comnenus I. nephew of Isaac I. ascends the throne. His reign is rendered illustrious by the pen of his daughter, the princess Anna Comnena. The Normans, under Robert of Apulia, invade the eastern empire1081
Asia Minor finally conquered by the Turks1084
Accession of William II. to the English throne1087
The first crusade1096
Jerusalem taken by the crusaders 15th July. The learned men of this century were Avicenna, Guy d’Arezzo, Glaber, Hermannus, Franco, Peter Damiani, Michael Celularius, George Cedrenus, Berenger, Psellus, Marianus Scotus, Arzachel, William of Spires, Suidas, Peter the Hermit, Sigebert1099
Henry I. succeeds to the throne of England1100
Learning revived at Cambridge1110
John, or Calojohannes, son of Alexius, succeeds at Constantinople1118
Order of Knights Templars instituted1118
Accession of Stephen to the English crown1135
Manuel son of John succeeds at Constantinople1143
The second crusade1147
The canon law composed by Gratian, after 24 years’ labour1151
The party names of Guelfs and Gibbelines begin in Italy1154
Henry II. succeeds in England1154
The Teutonic order begins1164
The conquest of Egypt by the Turks1169
The famous council of Clarendon in England, January 25th. Conquest of Ireland by Henry II.1172
Dispensing of justice by circuits first established in England1176
Alexius II. succeeds his father Manuel1180
English laws digested by Glanville1181
From the disorders of the government, on account of the minority of Alexius, Andronicus the grandson of the great Alexius is named Guardian, but he murders Alexius, and ascends the throne1183
Andronicus is cruelly put to death, and Isaac Angelus, a descendant of the great Alexius by the female line, succeeds1185
The third crusade, and siege of Acre1188
Richard I. succeeds his father Henry in England1189
Saladin defeated by Richard of England in the battle of Ascalon1192
Alexius Angelus brother of Isaac revolts, and usurps the sovereignty by putting out the eyes of the emperor1195
John succeeds to the English throne. The learned men of this century were Peter Abelard, Anna Comnena, St. Bernard, Averroes, William of Malmesbury, Peter Lombard, Otho Frisingensis, Maimonides, Humenus, Wernerus, Gratian, Geoffry of Monmouth, Tzetzes, Eustathius, John of Salisbury, Simeon of Durham, Henry of Huntingdon, Peter Comestor, Peter of Blois, Ranulph Glanville, Roger Hoveden, Campanus, William of Newburgh  ‘Trisingensis’ replaced with ‘Frisingensis’1199
Constantinople is besieged and taken by the Latins, and Isaac is taken from his dungeon and replaced on the throne with his son Alexius. This year is remarkable for the fourth crusade1203
The father and son are murdered by Alexius Mourzoufle, and Constantinople is again besieged and taken by the French and Venetians, who elect Baldwin count of Flanders emperor of the east. In the meantime, Theodore Lascaris makes himself emperor of Nicea; Alexius grandson of the tyrant Andronicus becomes emperor of Trebizond; and Michael, an illegitimate child of the Angeli, founds an empire in Epirus1204
The emperor Baldwin is defeated by the Bulgarians, and next year is succeeded by his brother Henry1205
Reign and conquests of the great Gengis Khan first emperor of the Mongols and Tartars, till the time of his death, 12271206
Aristotle’s works imported from Constantinople are condemned by the council of Paris1209
Magna Charta granted to the English barons by King John1215
Henry III. succeeds his father John on the English throne1216
Peter of Courtenay, the husband of Yolanda sister of the two last emperors, Baldwin and Henry, is made emperor by the Latins1217
Robert son of Peter Courtenay succeeds1221
Theodore Lascaris is succeeded on the throne of Nicea by his son-in-law John Ducas Vataces1222
John of Brienne, and Baldwin II. son of Peter, succeeded on the throne of Constantinople1228
The inquisition which had been begun 1204 is now trusted to the Dominicans1233
Baldwin alone1237
Origin of the Ottomans1240
The fifth crusade1248
Astronomical tables composed by Alphonso XI. of Castile1253
Ducas Vataces is succeeded on the throne of Nice by his son Theodore Lascaris II.1255
Lascaris succeeded by his son John Lascaris, a minor1259
Michael Palæologus son of the sister of the queen of Theodore Lascaris ascends the throne, after the murder of the young prince’s guardian1260
Constantinople is recovered from the Latins by the Greek emperors of Nicea1261
Edward I. succeeds on the English throne1272
The famous Mortmain act passes in England1279
Eight thousand French murdered during the Sicilian vespers, 30th of March1282
Wales conquered by Edward and annexed to England1283
Michael Palæologus dies, and his son Andronicus, who had already reigned nine years conjointly with his father, ascends the throne. The learned men of this century are Gervase, Diceto, Saxo Grammaticus, Walter of Coventry, Accursius, Anthony of Padua, Alexander Halensis, William of Paris, Peter de Vignes, Matthew Paris, Grosseteste, Albertus, Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventura, John Joinville, Roger Bacon, Cimabue, Durandus, Henry of Ghent, Raymond Lulli, Jacob Voragine, Albertet, Duns Scotus, Thebit1293
A regular succession of English parliaments from this time1293
The Turkish empire begins in Bithynia1298
The mariner’s compass invented or improved by Flavio1302
The Swiss cantons begin1307
Edward II. succeeds to the English crown1307
Translation of the holy see to Avignon, which alienation continues 68 years, till the return of Gregory XI.1308
Andronicus adopts, as his colleagues, Manuel, and his grandson the younger Andronicus. Manuel dying, Andronicus revolts against his grandfather, who abdicates1320
Edward III. succeeds in England  ‘1337’ replaced with ‘1327’1327
First comet observed, whose course is described with exactness, in June1337
About this time flourished Leo Pilatus, a Greek professor at Florence, Barlaam, Petrarch, Boccace, and Manuel Chrysoloras, where may be fixed the era of the revival of Greek literature in Italy1339
Andronicus is succeeded by his son John Palæologus in the ninth year of his age. John Cantacuzene, who had been left guardian of the young prince, assumes the purple. First passage of the Turks into Europe1341
The knights and burgesses of parliament first sit in the same house1342
The battle of Crecy, August 26th1346
Seditions of Rienzi at Rome, and his elevation to the tribuneship1347
Order of the Garter in England established April 23rd1349
The Turks first enter Europe1352
Cantacuzene abdicates the purple1355
The battle of Poictiers, September 19th1356
Law pleadings altered from French into English as a favour from Edward III. to his people, in his 50th year1362
Rise of Timour, or Tamerlane, to the throne of Samarcand, and his extensive conquests till his death, after a reign of 35 years1370
Accession of Richard II. to the English throne1377
Manuel succeeds his father John Palæologus1391
Accession of Henry IV. in England. The learned men of this century were Peter Apono, Flavio, Dante, Arnoldus Villa, Nicholas Lyra, William Occam, Nicephoras Gregoras, Leontius Pilatus, Matthew of Westminster, Wickliff, Froissart, Nicholas Flamel, &c.1399
Henry IV. is succeeded by his son Henry V.1413
Battle of Agincourt, October 25th1415
The island of Madeira discovered by the Portuguese1420
Henry VI. succeeds to the throne of England. Constantinople is besieged by Amurath II. the Turkish emperor1422
John Palæologus II. succeeds his father Manuel1424
Cosmo de Medici recalled from banishment, and rise of that family at Florence1434
The famous pragmatic sanction settled in France1439
Printing discovered at Mentz, and improved gradually in 22 years1440
Constantine, one of the sons of Manuel, ascends the throne after his brother John1448
Mahomet II. emperor of the Turks besieges and takes Constantinople on the 29th of May. Fall of the eastern empire. The captivity of the Greeks, and the extinction of the imperial families of the Comneni and Palæologi. About this time the House of York in England began to aspire to the crown, and, by their ambitious views, to deluge the whole kingdom in blood. The learned men of the 15th century were Chaucer, Leonard Aretin, John Huss, Jerome of Prague, Poggio, Flavius Blondus, Theodore Gaza, Frank Philelphus, Georgius Trapezuntius, Gemistus Pletho, Laurentius Valla, Ulugh Beigh, John Gutenberg, John Faustus, Peter Schoeffer, Wesselus, Peurbachius, Æneas Sylvius, Bessarion, Thomas à Kempis, Argyropulus, Regiomontanus, Platina, Agricola, Pontanus, Ficinus, Lascaris, Tiphernas, Annius of Viterbo, Merula, Savonarola, Picus, Politian, Hermolaus, Grocyn, Mantuanus, John Colet, Reuchlin, Lynacre, Alexander ab Alexandro, Demetrius Chalcondyles, &c.1453