II. OPERATIONS OF WAR
The words of Sun Tzu Wu the Master:
1. Now the requirements of war are such that we need a thousand light chariots with two horses each; a thousand heavy chariots with four horses each, and one hundred thousand ring-mail clad men; and we must send supplies to distant fields. Wherefore the cost at home and in the field, the entertainment of guests, glue and lacquer for repairs, and necessities for the upkeep of wagons and armour are such that in one day a thousand pieces of gold are spent. With that amount a force of one hundred thousand men can be raised: AND YOU HAVE THE INSTRUMENTS OF VICTORY.
1.1 Such is the cost of raising an army of 100,000 men.
2. But, even if victorious, if the operations continue long, the soldiers’ ardour fades, the sharp swords are dulled, and, if a siege is required, strength dissipates.
3. Again, if the war lasts long, the country’s means no longer suffice and when the soldiers are worn out, their weapons blunted, their strength gone and their funds spent, neighbouring princes arise and attack that weakened country. Then even the wisest man cannot mend the matter.
4. While quick accomplishment has been known to give the victory to the unskillful, the skillful general has never gained advantage from lengthy operations. There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare.
5. It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted with the evils of war that can properly understand the profitable way of carrying it on:
5.1 The skillful soldier does not raise a second levy, neither are his supply-wagons loaded more than twice.
5.2 Bring war material with you from home, but forage on the enemy. Thus the army will have food enough for its needs.
5.3 The cost of supplying the army in distant fields is the chief drain on the resources of a state: if the war be distant, the citizens are impoverished.
5.4 In the neighbourhood of an army, prices are high, and so the money of the soldiers and followers is used up. Likewise the state funds are exhausted, and frequent levies must be made; the strength of the army is dissipated, money is spent, the citizen’s home swept bare: in all, seven-tenths of his income is forfeited. Again, as regards State property, chariots are broken, horses worn out, armour and helmet, arrow and bow, spear, shield, pike and fighting tower, wagon and oxen used and gone, so that six-tenths of the Government’s income is spent.
5.5 Therefore the intelligent general strives to feed on the enemy; one bale of the enemy’s rice counts as twenty from your own wagons; one bundle of the enemy’s forage is better than twenty of our own.
5.6 Incentives must be given to vanquish the enemy. They who take advantage of the enemy should be rewarded.
5.7 They who are the first to lay their hands on more than ten of the enemy’s chariots should be rewarded; the enemy’s standard on the chariots exchanged for your own; the captured chariots mixed with your own chariots and taken into use.
5.8 Captured warriors must be treated well and share in the pillaging, so that, while the enemy is beaten, your side increases in strength. Once they have stolen from their own, raped their own, they become your mercenaries for life.
6. Now the object of war is victory; not lengthy operations, even if skillfully conducted.
7. The good general is the lord of the people’s lives, the guardian of the country’s welfare.