VIKINGS IN INDIA

I was working on Book 3 and King Ivar ‘the Boneless’ was sitting at a bar in Baghdad when he was approached by another merchant warrior and this prince was from Ashaval in Gujurat Province, India, and he wanted to talk business.

Now, everybody has heard of Sindbad ‘the Sailor’ so, I knew there was a trade route between Baghdad and India because that is the route that Sindbad sailed. But did Vikings ever sail it? Viking traders were in Baghdad and they came by ships through river routes via the Caspian and Black Seas so, why wouldn’t they sail down the Tigris River to the Arab Sea and join this Indian prince in Ashaval for some great spice and slave trading? So, I did some research and the first thing I found were Jats in India claiming to be from Jutland in Denmark! I was very surprised by this claim, but so were some when they found L’Anse Aux Meadows. So, although I haven’t verified the info, below you will find some of what I found on a Jat website (www.jatland.com):

History of Origin of Some Clans in India/Jat From Jutland

Jutland, the Home Land of All Jats of the World

History of Origin of Some Clans in India

(with special Reference to Jats)

By Mangal Sen Jindal (1992)

Publisher – Sarup & Sons, 4378/4B, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002, ISBN 81-85431-08-6


Chapter 1: Jat From Jutland


Jutland, the Home Land of All Jats of the World

Jutland (Now Jylland) in Denmark:

This chapter deals with relations of Jats of the world to Scandinavian countries as also with other countries. Scandinavia is an ill pronunciation of Sanskrit word Scandhnabh (स्कंधनाभ). This Sanskrit word is said to have occurred at various places in Vedic literature. Scandinavia during the course of time split up politically into (i) Norway, (ii) Sweden, (iii) Denmark including Jutland and Friesland and some other small countries on the coast of Baltic Sea. Some of the authorities hold that the home of Aryans was in North West of Europe i.e., Scandinavia and adjacent area of the North where nights are long. Such authorities have been quoted hereinafter. This theory finds corroboration by the Analysis


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of origin of languages also. Since the language of Germany, English, Dutch, Icelandic and Scandinavia said to have derived from Aryan Language Sanskrit.

Germany itself is a pure Sanskrit word ‘Gramany’ (ग्रामनी) which in Aryan times denoted a headman of a village or clan and whose authority was supreme in that village or clan both economically and politically. Quotations have been given in this regard.

Jutland (Jylland) is a peninsula of Denmark, covering greatest inhabited area of the country. As has been said else Where in this work, this is the land of Juts or Jats and the Jats of Whole of the world have got blood relations with this land, since all jats are descendants of a common ancestor.

Sir Henery ElIiot has clearly said that Dhe and Pachhade Jats migrated to India later on from North West Europe.

To prove my case that Jutland is the home land of all Jats, of the World, let me analyse the word Jutland. This word is made up of two components i.e., Jut and Land. It clearly signifies that it is the land of the Juts or Jats. Land in Persian language is translated as Istan and in Sanskrit is known as Astlian. The difference of spellings and dialect between similar words i.e., Jat or Jut and Istan or Asthan, is due to different alphabets and speech in various languages. Spellings do change by the passing of the time e.g., old spelling of Lucknow previously were Lakhnaw and of Muzaffarnagar, the same were Mozzofornogar and that of Alighar were Alyagraha. Similarly Varanasi previously was known and spelt as Banaras and Kanpur as Cawnpore etc. As Eng-Land is the homeland of all Englishmen in the World, Fin-Land, the land of all Finns; Goath-Land, the land of the Goaths ; Gaza-Land, the land of the Gazas; Po-Land, the land of the Polls; Naga- Land, the land of the Nagas ; Ire-Land, the land of Irish; Zulu-Land, the land of Zulus; Bilouch-Istan is home-land of all Bilauchs, Uzbekistan, the homeland of all Uzbeks; Afganistan the homeland of all Afgans; Hindustan, the home land of all Hindus; Ghor-Istan, the land of the Ghors; so on and so forth. Hence Jut-Land is


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the home land of all the JatsJitsZotsGothsJuts etc. i.e., different dialects of the Jats.

It is from Jutland whereto or wherefrom most of the Jats either migrated or immigrated into the whole world. As all the Muslims of the world, in whatever country they may be, consider Arabia as their homeland, so all Parsis consider Persia as their homeland. Therefore all the Jats of the world consider Jutland or Jutisthan as their homeland and have special affinity to this part of the world.


Migration of Jats

Expansion of Scandinavias – One Thousand Years Back.

Map of Denmark showing Jutland

Jutland– East Jutland, Northern Jutland and Southern part of Jutland, page 33-“Jutland Peninsula”, page 38- ‘West Jutland, page 41 etc. of Denmark Official Hand Book. “It is characteristic that periods of great political power in Danish history have been on strong naval powers, as in the


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viking period and the medieval expansion in the Baltic area and period of great commercial power can be seen as results of the same factors as they have been based on the efficiency of merchant shipping. This is true of mercantile expansion in the sixteenth century, which led to the establishment of colonies in India, on the Guinea coast, and in the West Indus.” Page 38 of Denmark Official Hand Book.

The map of Denmark drawn in seveteenth century shows the area of Gotland in Sweden, as part of the kingdom of Denmark. page 43 of Denmark O. H. Book.

Juts lived in villages in Jutland as they live in India. “The original form of habitation except in West Jutland and Bornholm, was the nucleated village. Most Danish villages ante-date the beginning of the historical period. The village community was abolished at the end of the 18th century.” Page 53 of Denmark O. H. Book.


Through centuries of cultivation, the soil has been radically improved; it is cultivated in the true sense of the term. The result is an agricultural area which comprises three fourths of the land surface, with maximum potential cropping.” Page 21, Denmark O. H.Book.

“Denmark is both an agricultural and industrial country … Manufactures includes the processing of agricultural products e.g., milk, meat and sugarbeet ….. The greater part of the area (69.8 per cent) is agricultural.” Page 55. “The New Stone Age (before 3000 B.C.) saw the introduction of an occupation that was to have vital importance of Denmark thereafter namely, agriculture.” Page 61 of Denmark O. H. Book.

“The viking times were a period of Scandinavian expansion; as indeed can be read in the finds themselves, not only in Scandinavia, but wherever the intrepid warriors went, Page 67 of Denmark O. H. Book.

“Great droves of export cattle from Spottrup and other mansions in the rich Limfjord region travelled the bullock road through Jutland to north German markets for centuries.” Page 77 of Denmark O. H. Book.


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“It follows from the figures that the sun at midnight in summer is low under the northern horizon, giving the ‘light nights, that are characteristic of Denmark and other Northern countries. The most westerly point in DenmarkBlavands Huk, in West Jutland is situated at 8°5′ E. Long.” ….. Denmark Official Handbook, Page 41.

German Effect on Jutland

“The Danish language belongs to the East Scandinavian group of Germanic languages. The national religion, to which the bulk of the population belongs, is Lutheran Evangilical. The only non-Danish minority is a German element.” Den- mark Official Handbook, page 53.

“Migrations and invasions from the continent early flowed across the open borderland of Jutland. By the same route came culture currents from Western Europe and Germany, which Denmark received and adapted to her own genius. But even in the Iron Age, with its vigorous economic and social development, Danish tribes trekked across Europe towards Germany and Italy and sailed their vessels to Britain. This first great expansion was followed from about 500-600 A.D. by another, which along with Norwegian Viking raids to the west and Swedish to the east, continued for several centuries and culminated around 900-1000 A. D.” Denmark Official Handbook, page 70.

“The Juts of Jutland expanded to Cologne, Paris, Nantes, Spain, Camargue Luna (Italy) Greece, Constantinopel, Novgorod (USSR), Kiev, Itil and Semender etc., all prior to 1000 A.D.” …… Denmark Official Handbook, page 71. Refer to the map in this Chapter dealing with migration and immigration of Jats.

“Towards the end of eighth century A. D. Viking seafarers began a series of raids from the North. The roads marked the start of the Viking Era, a span of some 250 years when a tremendous outpouring of energy carried man of the North to such far flung places as Greenland and Bagdad.


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During the Viking Era these people colonized parts of England and France and all of Sicily. They established the first Russian kingdom. They traded slaves and furs for Chinese silks and Arab Silver in the markets of Bagdad.” Who discovered America by Patricia Lauber published by Random House, New York-pages 79 and 80.

The Viking expansion had important consequences for development in Denmark itself. Riches, slaves and foreign culture were imported; at the same time those who stayed at home cleared large tracts of forest and built many new villages. Large farmers became estate-owners. “Page 72 of Denmark O. H. Book.

“The new influence flowing from the South reached Denmark chiefly through North Germany. A culture which flourished among enterprising merchants and artisans of the Hanseatic towns exerted a profound influence, also linguistically, on Denmark.” Page 110 of Denmark O. H. Book.

“Of the Judicial system before 1200 there is only very incomplete knowledge, but by about 1200 A. D. there were three separate areas of jurisdiction, each with its own law; The Jutland code, the Zealand code and the Scanean code. The last-named gradually lost their importance and were superseded by the Jutland area.” Page 255 of Denmark O.H. Book.

It is difficult to study religious history of Jutland of prior to 826 A.D. when “Christianity was introduced in 826 by the mission of the Benedictine monk Ansgar, from northern France. But it was not adopted until 960….When the king had himself baptized and ordered the religion’s introduction.” Page 239 of Denmark O. H. Book.

The only non-Danish minority is a German element in South Jutland numbering about 40,000 or less than 0.8 percent of the population. Big industrial expansion has caused a large immigration of foreign workers, totaling 54,000 (1972).

Habitation

“The New Stone Age (before 3000 B.C.) saw the introduction of an occupation that was to have vital importance of


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Denmark thereafter; namely, agriculture. The arts of taming animals and growing cereals were learnt; through several intermediaries from the ancient civilizations of the Near East.” Page 61 of Denmark Official Handbook.

“She (Denmark) came to occupy a key position at the outlet of the Baltic. In successive combination she clashed with the English, German princes, and Norwegian and Swedish kings. The period of expansion lasted until about 1600 and and followed by the struggle to preserve the national territory against expanding rivals: Swedish power in Scania ; Germany in the border regions of southern Jutland. In the long run Danish foreign policy was dictated by her relations with the western maritime powers on the one hand and the great continental powers on the other.” Page 69 of Denmark Official Handbook.

Jats, wherever in the world, have adopted to cultivation and pastoral life. They are the best cultivators in the world.

Jutland is certainly the homeland of all the Jats. The Jats being of militant nature, seem to have turned to the west of the common house and conquering MesopotamiaSyriaGermany reached the Baltic Sea to establish permanently in Jutland consisting of modern DenmarkGothlandSweden and NorwayJut is a name that later grew into JatGotGothZottJit etc. The Jats of Eurasia seem to have remembered Jutland (Jatisthan) as their home but have forgotten its location. Please examine the following quotations :

“Migrating races look back to the land of their origin for centuries. The Parsis in India remember their origin after 800 years. The ancient Egyptions and the Phoenicians remembered their respective lands of origin even though they have forgotten their location…. Indian People, Vol. I, page 216.

“That from the Indo-Iranians common house the pre-Indians and the pre-Iranian expanded in two almost opposite directions ….. Indian People Vol. I, page 219.

Sweden has experienced some very dynamic periods in her history when people from this outlying northern Peninsula


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travelled South to the cradles of Western civilization and helped to shape European history. Two such period stand out, and in both cases, the Sweden came to be as much feared as honoured. The first outward thrust occurred at a time of stagnation for Western culture: between 800 and 1050 A.D. when the vikings pushed eastward from Scandinavia and followed the water routes leading through Russia to the Black Sea or headed westwards towards the Atlantic littoral and the British Isles.” ….. Profile of Sweden, page 9.

“Summing up what we have said so far, the Swedes live together in very small family units, so there is every reason to speak of the nuclear family in a quite literal sense. Contacts with relatives have decreased as a result of heavy internal migration during the past few decades; relatives are widely dispersed and the distances in Sweden are considerable. For many urban families however, visits to relatives in the country are still a popular vocation pastime; yet such relatives are becoming fewer in number as urbanization proceeds.” Profile of Sweden, page 37.

“Man has lived in Norway for at least 10,000 years, but the country did not become really settled until historical times. The majority of the population today belong to the Nordic race tall, fair, long skulled people, and most of them have blue eyes,” Facts about Norway, page 8.

Sir Henry Elliot affirms, that in these provinces the tribe has two great divisions. “The Dhe and the Hele of the Doab, or Pachhade and Deswale of Rohilkhand and Delhi. The former (the Dhe and [[Pachhade) are later swarm from that teeming hive of nations which has been winging its way from the North West from time immemorial.” Hindu Tribes and Castes, Vol. I, page 233.

“In Sweden in the seventeenth century marriages outside the clan was punished. According to the German Civil Law the marriage of a man belonging to the high nobility with a woman of inferior birth is still regarded as disparaging and the woman is not entitled to the rank of her husband nor is


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the full right of inheritance possessed by her or her children,” History of Caste, page 29,

“It (USSR) is a multi-national state inhabited by more than 100 nationalities and peoples.” Geography of U.S.S.R., page 35.

“At present population of Jats including Sikh Jats (in India) is approximately 9.6 Million. But in 4th century B.C., it was five times.” Page 2 of Jat ItihasJutland was populated exclusively by Jats. In NorwaySwedenGermany and Spain also they were not less numerous. To avoid christianity some Jats came to India from near around Caspian SeaDhai or Dhayai are well known, page 4 of Jat ItihasJats in ArabIranAfghanistan and Bilauchistan were usurped by Islam.

Shri Desraj quotes History of Medieval Hindu India by C.B. Vaid saying-“Their (Jats) ethonological characteristics also, as we have already seen, are clearly Aryans. They are fair, tall, high nosed and long headed They are mentioned in the Mahabharat as Jartas in the Karna Parva,” page 9. In Punjab, instead of Jat, the pronunciation is Jut or Jutt, page 12.

Shri Desraj quotes Mr. Nessfield on page 16, “If appearance goes for anything Jats could not but be Aryans.” On page 43 he again quotes his saying, “The word Jat is nothing more than the modern Hindi pronunciation of Yadu or Jadu the tribe in which Krishna was born.” This does not seem to be correct since Jat in fourteenth century could be located in (i) India, (ii) Uzbekistan, (iii) Jutland, (iv) Gotland, and (v) Gothland, side by side while to my knowledge, Yadus are not located outside India pp. 9. 12,43 of Jat Itihas.

Shri Desraj quotes religions book of Scandinavia namely Aidda (एडडा ) saying that ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia were Jitts (जटेस) and Jits (जिटस) who were called Aryans and they were originally residents of Asigarh which is situated in Distt. Neemar in Malwa, page 61 of Jat ltihas. He further quotes one Scandinavians Mr. Count Jansturn who says that Scandinavians came from India, page 61. Scandinavia is


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an ill pronunciation of Skandhnabh (स्कंधनाभ), page 61 of Jat ltihas.

“How perfectly in unison is all this of the Jits of Jutland and the Jits of Rajasthan. In each case the hair is the chief object of admiration; of Balnath as balder and the magical effect of the Runes is not more powerful than that attached by the chief of the scalds of our Gete prince at the end of this inscription, fresh evidences in support of my hypothesis, that may of the Rajpoot races and Scandinavians have a common origin-that origin, Central Age.

Note 2 : Salpoora is the name of the capital of this Jit prince and his epithet of Sal-indra is merely titular, as the Indra, or lord of Sal-poori, ‘the city of Sal‘ which the fortunate discovery of an inscription raised by Komarpal, king of Anhulwarra (Nehrwalla of D’ Anille) dated S. 1207, has enabled me to place “at the base of the Sewaluk Mountains,” In order to elucidate this point, and to give the full value of this record of the Jit princess of the Punjab. I append (No. V) a translation of the Nehrwalla conqueror’s inscription, which will prove beyond a doubt that these Jit princes of Salpoori in the Punjab were the leaders of that very colony of the Yuti from the Jaxartes, who in the fifth century, as recorded by De Guignes, crossed the Indus and possessed themselves of the Punjab, and strange to say, have again risen to power, for the Sikhs (disciples) of Nanak are almost all of Jit Origin.” Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, page 623.

“But the primary significance attached to the term ‘Aryan‘ by Penka is the physical type represented by the Scandinavians. It is not to be wondered therefore, that starting with this assumption Penka succeeded in proving, at least to his own satisfaction, that Scandinavia was the cradle- land of the lndo-European.” Page 209 of Indian People Vol. I (The distinguished author Shri R.C. Majumdar in his valuable work “The History and Culture of the Indian People” Volume 1- the Vedic Age on, page 214 remarks “It is curious to note that both Penka (op. cit., page 56) and Tilak (See his Arctic Home in the Vedas), independently of each other, arrived at


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the conclusion that the original home of the Aryans was situated in the Polar region. Penka depended on the evidence of Odyssey X-81-6, where short nights are spoken of. In the Vedic literature there are indeed passages which may suggest that the Vedic Aryans actually knew of the never-setting polar sun (See Aitareya Brahmana III. 4.6)

That these people of Jutland (Sehlesurg peninsula) had migrated far and wide towards South-East is evidenced by the following passages:

“It is equally clear that the west Germans (Juts) had not lost their habit of long-distance migration. There is good evidence also to show that they had a keen eye to the qualities of arable soils and that these afforded sufficient ground for the movement of large groups made up of federated tribes, together with their flocks and herds.” An Historical Geography of Europe, page 57.

“In moving forward towards the Mediterranean world where geographical conditions had long favoured precious cultural development, the German peoples followed the line of least resistance which had been frequently taken in earlier times by the Achaians, for example who moved into Greece and by the Celts who entered the BalkansItaly and Spain.” ….. An Historical Geography of Europe, page 59.

Jat is a tribe which is least homesick. The Sikh Jats are available in practically every country of the world. Because of their hard labour and adaptability to every climate and culture, they are doing very well everywhere. In India also thousands of examples are at hand where a Jat exchanged his small holdings of land with large undeveloped tract at a distance of hundreds of miles away from his village and by his toil, converted these into fertile lands and are reaping good harvest. So is the case with Danish people who are self-sufficient in food even with their hilly tracts.

“The north men conquerors gave their names to the new state; Rus had originally connoted the Baltic homelands of the varangians-Sweden and Denmark, but in the eleventh and


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twelth centuries the terms Rus of ‘the Russian land’ denoted the region around Kiev. It is significant that the varied stock of which Russia was composed-chiefly Slavs, finns and varangians-were not at this time called the Russian people.” An Historical Geography of Europe, page 218. Hence existence of Juts in Russia, centuries before, is a good evidence that the people of Denmark migrated to long distances.

“The economic and political development of Slav Russia in the ninth century owed much to external stimuli exerted by the steppe horsemen to the south. The ninth century witnessed the maritime activities of the Viking raiders who from basis in Scandinavia ravaged the coasts alike of the North Sea, the channel and the Baltic and sailed up the rivers of Britain, Gaul and Russia. The vikings pushed up into Russia by the Neva Volkhov and Lovat rivers, thence by way of the Narva by short portages they reached the Dnieper itself. The Rusmen were quick to perceive the Trade possibilities of the Russian rivers, and to establish trade intercourse between Russia and both the Greeks of the Byzantine Empire and the Arabs. They settled in the rural trading centres of the Slavs along the Dnieper and its affluents, and these collecting centres of local produce grew quickly under the stimulus of river navigation, into mercantile towns.” An Historical Geography of Europe, page 217.

Vikings

“The most widespread and destructive raiders came from Scandinavia. During the ninth and tenth centuries, Swedes, Danes and Norwegians- collectively known as Vikings stormed out of their remote forests and fiords The Danes took the middle passage, raiding England and the shores of GermanyFrance and Spain. By the 870’s they had occupied most of England, north of the Thames. Also in the middle of the ninth century their fury broke upon the continent, where their long boats sailed up the Rhine, Scheldt, Seine and Loire. In particular the Danes devastated north west France,


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destroying dozens of abbeys and towns.” Civilization Past and Present, Pages 194, 195, American Library, New Delhi.

“West of the Oder estuary, on the other hand, the coast features contrast with those of Pomerania and between Rostock and Jatland the natural conditions for maritime commerce were excellent, since vessals found there abundant shelter, and could navigate well inland, off the east coast of Jutland the sea is shallow and sheltered from the west winds, and the Testiary rock which forms this low coastland has offered resistance to marine erosion: in consequence, the coast has not been smoothed out as in Pomerania but is actually deeply embayed. More-over in the Western part of the Baltic, islands are concentrated: Rugon stands at the mouth of the Oder; Funen and Zealand lie between Jutland and Sweden; and the island of Bornland and Gothland are situated in relation to neighbouring coasts as to form useful maritime stations or trade centres.” An Historical Geography of Europe, pages 325 to 326.

“Moreover, as early as 1526 the Dutch had formed the idea (which however, was not realized) of making Goteborg in south-western Sweden a great staple port, so that goods could be carried overland into the Baltic and the sound dues could be evaded. In order to avoid payment of the toll dues they sought also the route along the coasts of Norway to the Arctic and white Sea ports of Russia.” An Historical Geography of Europe, page 347.

“The Goths were the first to occupy Roman Dacia, A.D. 250 ; in 270 the province was abandoned, and the lower Danube re-fortified as the frontier line; whilst by 350 the Goths had pushed their territories as far west as the lower Tisza. Their subsequent invasion of Gaula may have followed the Roman Danubian roads; it is known merely that they crossed the Rhine and captured Metz.” … An Historical Geography of Europe, pages 379 to 380.

Denmark

Denmark in 1870 in many respects lacked the distinguishing features of its present economic geography. Cereal production particularly Barley, rye and Oats-then played the most important part in its agricultural economy. The best cultivated lands were those of the big estates, on which record yields were obtained, but five-sixths of the country was held by free-holding peasants was disdained in 1870 both in the towns and abroad, and the only butter fit for export was that of the great landowners. The revolution in the agricultural economy of Denmark which made it an important producer of bacon, butter and eggs for exports began only towards 1890 when the competition of American cereals carried to Europe by steam-ship led to increased attention to dairy farming.” An Historical Geography of Europe, pages 426 to 427.

The Goths

“The Goths, one of the more numerous German peoples, moved south-eastwards from the north German plain to the lowlands north of the Black Sea. Advancing Westwards from this region to the lower Danube, some of them settled within the Balkan lands of the Byzunine Empire, whilst other moved up the valleys of the Drave and Save and thence into Italy. The Ostrogoths, as they were called, established a kingdom in Italy, which they ruled from the old Roman capital of Ravenna.

Another branch of the Goths who became known as the west or visigoths, crossed the western Alps and conquered as large part of southern Gaul, which they governed from Toulouse. In the year 413 they took possession of the cities of Valence on the lower Rhone, the ‘Gap Town’ of Toulouse and seaport of Narbonne. In its initial stage, about the year A. D. 410, the Kingdom of Visigoths extended between the Atlantic, the Garonne and the Pyrenees. From this base they conquered in a few years the whole of Aquitaine, and also the town of Poitiers, which commanded the Roman route northwards to the Loise. Further they crossed the Pyrenees and succeeded by the year 457 in conquering almost the whole of Spain. Shortly after this they captured definitely the town of Narbonne and also Nimes Merseilles and Arler, and consolidated the it rule over Low Languedve, the lower Rohne and even Province south of the Durance. At its greatest extent, at the end of the fifth century. the visigothic state embraced southern Gaul between the Loire. the lower Rhone, the Atlantic, the Gaul of Lion and the Pyrenees, whilst only a part of Spain with-stood their advance. In the northwest from the lower Tagus to Galicia earlier German immigrants, the Suevi, escaped conquest, whilst in the western Pyrenees and the cantabrian mountains the Basques preserved their independence. It was as an advance post against these sturdy mountaineers, descendants of the Iberi of Caesar, that the visigoths built in the year 581 their only town in Spain, namely Victoria, which stands above the Zadorra river, the valley of which carried the Coast road from Gaul down to the Upper Ebro. The advance of


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the Visigoths to the Loire brought them to the Southern frontier of the Frankish kingdom, and in the warfare that ensued between the two peoples the visigothic forces suffered decisive defeats.” [1] “The next great step for the Arab Mohammadans, after taking Africa. as then known, was to invade Spain, and that expedition was one of the greatest items in their magnificent conquest of nation. What was the state of Spain in the seventh century? After the fall of the Roman Empire, Spain was overrun by the VisigothsSueviVandals, and other barbarians from the north. The Vandals gave name of Andalusia i.e., Vandalitia) ; and both they and the Visigoths, or Western Goths, were nominally Christian. Before the arrival of the Moslem conquerors, the Visigoths had become the rulers, but from their severity they were loved neither by Spain nor by the Berbers of the neighbouring African coast.” ., …. [2]

“After seven days fighting, according to tradition, Roderick, the last of the Gothic kings, commanding, in a splendid chariot of ivory, clad in cloth of gold, was killed, and the Moors (Muslim) were victorious, though in numbers only one to six.” [3]

“Such was the end of the rule of Spain by the Western Goths. In the fifth century, descending from their wild German forests they had ravaged ‘France’ (using its future name) with fire and sword, then taken possession of Spain, just as the Eastern Goths after passing the Danube, had overrun Greece and Italy. every step marked by copious bloodshed.” ….. · [4]

“The Spanish population and the Jews of the towns, found the Moslem rule much preparable to that which the Goths had so long exercised.” [5]


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“The easy settlement of the Moslems in Spain, and the continuance of their rule, was due to several causes which are easily understood. The previous government of the Gothic Christians had been much harsher and more arbitrary.” … [6]

References

  1. Jump up↑ An Historical Geography of Europe, pages 143 to 144.
  2. Jump up↑ The Story of Extinct Civilization of the East, page 131.
  3. Jump up↑ The Story of Extinct Civilizations of East, page 132.
  4. Jump up↑ The Story of Extinct Civilization of the East, page 133.
  5. Jump up↑ The Story of Extinct Civilizations of the East, page 134.
  6. Jump up↑ The Story of Extinct Civilizations of the East, page 140.

Sweden

“The foreign trade of Sweden was exclusively in the hands of a number of staple towns, of which Stockholm and Goteborg were by far the most important. The former was built on a number of islands and peninsulas in Lake Malar, and possessed good deep harbourage, although careful pilotage was necessary to effect entry. Goteborg commanded the maritime terminal of the central plain of Sweden in the West as did Stockholm in the east. It stood at the head of the estuary of the Gota which drains into the Katlegat, but Vessels could not reach the town and had to discharge their cargoes into lighters. [Goteborg]] imported grain and salt; it was the chief port for the herring fishing and for the Greenland whale hunting; it exported iron fish, and oil extracted from Whale and from herrings. In the transport of the bulk products of Sweden internal and external trade waterways played an important and increasing part. The many large lakes of central Sweden were linked up by a river and canal ways, thus the Stromsholm canal, facilitated the carriage of iron and copper from Dalecarnia to Stockholm, whilst the Capital was also linked with Orebro by way of Lakes Hjelonar and Vaner and auxiliary rivers or canals. The project of a continuous waterway between Stockholm and Goteborg was eventually carried out in 1800 by the cutting of a rocky bed for a canal past the Trolhatten cataracts on the Gota river, just below the point where it leaves the Vaner lake: prior to 1800 a short stoppage was necessary at this section of the river. The Trolhatten canal allowed passage to ships of 9 feet draught; it served above all a regional purpose as an outlet for iron and wood from Vermland.” ….. An Historical Geography of Europe, page 399.

“At this time (A. D. 449) the Jut brothers, Hengist and Horra led a colony for Jutland and founded the Kingdom of


[p.105]: Kent (qu. Canthi, ‘a coast’. in Sanskrit as in Gothic Kanta ?). The laws they had there introduced more especially the still prevaling one of gavel kind, where an the sons share equally, except the younger who has a double portion, are purely Scythic and brought by the original Goth from the Jaxartes.

Alaric had finished his career and Theodoric and Genseric (vie King in Sanskrit) were carrying their arms into Spain and Africa…. Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. 1, pages 89 to 90.

Russia

The people of Russia belong to Indo-European group of peoples. Their language has many characteristics in common with GermanIranian and Greek and Aryan tongues. In steppes of Russia, great waves of migration came at intervals. In 4th century and afterwards the Huns entered and controlled the steppes of Russia. Thereafter Mongols invaded and established their reign in Russia. The Mongols imposed strict obedience on the Princes and also introduced regime of taxation and military conscription. Near about 3rd century, the Slavic tribes established in this country and Norsemen entered the country in 8th century and thereafter, by way of the Baltic.

The settlers in South Russian steppes were Scythians belonging to Iranian language. The Scythians favourite occupation was war and closest companion was the horse. They entered Russia in or about 7th century.

Goths who were German tribes dominated Russian steppes by entering from north along the Dnieper and Don rivers in 3rd Century A.D. They became mounted Warriors and organised strong military, but they were subdued by the Huns.

The Vikings or Norsemen in 6th and 7th Centuries were able mariners, explorers and traders, entered Russia in 7th century and used their famous sword.

In 9th century when Byzantine emperor threatened the North and South Russian trade routes, it became necessary to call the Varangians from the overseas and the call was answered


History of Origin of Some Clans in India:End of p.105


by Riurik (Rovic) a famous Norse pirate who was ruler of Southern Jatland and Friesland, as Vassal of Emperor Lothaire. He restored order in North Russia and established in Novgord. Thus Scandinavians settled in North Russia who migrated to South in the course of time.

Once again in 12th century, the Germans and Swedes entered Russia through Riga, a Town founded in 1200 A.D., as traders and missionaries. Thus Germans and Scandinavians migrated into Russia in many waves, now and then. This also explains the migration of Juts from Denmark and Sweden in USSR and particularly more fertile and warm Uzbekistan where Timurlung invaded Jat strongholds.

George Vernadsky, author of a History of Russia on page 31 says “The call (calling the Varangians, Scandinavian invaders as they were called, from over the seas) was answered by Riurik of Muscovite dynasty (in the Frankish Annals, Roric) the famous Norse (Scandinavian) advanturer and pirate, who as vassal of Emperor Lqthaire (Frank Emperor) was then the ruler on southern ‘Jutland‘ and Friesland (Western Europe)”. Jats under Riurik came to Russia to subdue the invaders and established in North Russia where from they spread in the whole of the country. The Mongol invaders like Mangu later conscripted 10% of population of Russia for military purposes and therefore Jats became the army of the Mongols. The Mongols established Jats for protection of their conquests in SamarkandTashkantOtrarBokharaKhojendQarshiKumrud and Kirghis steppes. At that time Karakorum was the capital city in Mongolia and their Sarai was near present Stalingrad.

“In the Edda, we are informed that the Getes or Jits who entered Scandinavia, were termed Asi and their first settlement as- gard (Asi-gurh-fortress of the Asi)” Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, page 54.

“The successor of Odin in Scandinavia was Gotama; and Gotama was the successor of the last Boodha, Mahavira, who as Gotama or Gaudama is still adored from the straits of


History of Origin of Some Clans in India:End of p.106


Malacca (Malaya) to the Casipan Sea, (Yeutland was the name given to the whole Cimbric chersonese, or Julland-Pinkerton on the Goths)”. Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I page 54.

“The Yuchi established in Bactria and along the Jihoon (Jaxartes River) eventually bore the name of Jeta or Yetan that is to say Getes. Their empire subsisted a long time in this part of Asia and extended even into India. Then are the people whom the Greeks knew under the names of Indo-Scythes. Their manners are the same as those of Turks. Revolution occurred in the very heart of the East, whose consequences were felt afar. (Histoire des Huns, Vol. I, page 42)” ….. ” Annals of Rajasthan Vol. I, page 55.

“The period allowed by all these authorities for the migration of these Scythic hordes into Europe is also that for their entry into India”…… Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. 55.

It proves that 1st migration of Jats from Central Asia as also known Transoxiana the area between the Amu and Syr rivers or also known as Oxus and Jihoon or Jaxartes rivers, was simultaneous towards south east into India and north west to USSRScandinaviaJutland and Germany. Therefore it is but to be held that Jats by whatever name was called in various European and Asiatic countries including Persia and Jutland, have a common ancestor and thus members of one family and knitted with blood relationship. The Jats in Christian and Muslim countries by now have fused with the other tribes and thus the Gotra, clan, tribe or even race of the people has been lost and it is not possible to trace a person as Jat in those countries, except Jutland. They themselves have forgotten that they belong to Jat tribe and are Jats. However India and Jutland are lucky in this respect yet to maintain the existence of Jat or Jut tribe in the world. This will help the people of the two countries to be faithful to each other, in peace and war and to co-operate in all spheres of life, with a view to be helpful to each other. If JatsJutsJitsZotsGoths of the world know that they are descendants of a common ancestor, the feeling will promote world peace.

Indian Maritime History

Indian maritime history begins during the 3rd millennium BCE when inhabitants of the Indus Valley initiated maritime trading contact with Mesopotamia.[1] As per the Vedic records. the Indian traders and merchants traded with Far East and the Arabia. During the Maurya period (3rd century BC), there was a definite ‘naval department’ to supervise the ships and trade. The Indian products reached the Romans during the rule of Augustus and Indian merchants earned about 1 million sistreces annually, which was later, not appreciated by the Romans themselves. The Roman historian Strabo mentions an increase in Roman trade with India following the Roman annexation of Egypt.[2] Strabo reports that during the time when Aelius Gallus was Prefect of Egypt (26-24 BCE), he saw 120 ships ready to leave for India at the Red Sea port of Myos Hormos.[3] As trade between India and the Greco-Roman world increased spices became the main import from India to the Western world,[4] bypassing silk and other commodities.[5] Indians were present in Alexandria[6] while Christian and Jewish settlers from Rome continued to live in India long after the fall of the Roman Empire,[7] which resulted in Rome’s loss of the Red Sea ports,[8] previously used to secure trade with India by the Greco-Roman world since the Ptolemaic dynasty.[9] The Indian commercial connection with South East Asia proved vital to the merchants of Arabia and Persia during the 7th–8th century.[10] A study published in 2013 found that some 11 percent of Australian Aboriginal DNA is of Indian origin and suggests these immigrants arrived about 4,000 years ago, possibly at the same time dingoes first arrived in Australia.

On orders of Manuel I of Portugal, four vessels under the command of navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, continuing to the eastern coast of Africa to Malindi to sail across the Indian Ocean to Calicut.[13] The wealth of the Indies was now open for the Europeans to explore.  The Portuguese Empire was the first European empire to grow from spice trade.

Prehistory

The region around the Indus river began to show visible increase in both the length and the frequency of maritime voyages by 3000 BCE.[14] Optimum conditions for viable long-distance voyages existed in this region by 2900 BCE.[15] Mesopotamian inscriptions indicate that Indian traders from the Indus valley—carrying copper, hardwoods, ivory, pearls, carnelian, and gold—were active in Mesopotamia during the reign of Sargon of Akkad (c. 2300 BCE).[1] Gosch & Stearns write on the Indus Valley’s pre-modern maritime travel:[16] Evidence exists that Harappans were bulk-shipping timber and special woods to Sumer on ships and luxury items such as lapis lazuli. The trade in lapis lazuli was carried out from northern Afghanistan over eastern Iran to Sumer but during the Mature Harappan period an Indus colony was established at Shortugai in Central Asia near the Badakshan mines and the lapis stones were brought overland to Lothal in Gujarat and shipped to Oman, Bahrain and Mesopotamia.

Archaeological research at sites in Mesopotamia, Bahrain, and Oman has led to the recovery of artefacts traceable to the Indus Valley civilisation, confirming the information on the inscriptions. Among the most important of these objects are stamp seals carved in soapstone, stone weights, and colourful carnelian beads….Most of the trade between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley was indirect. Shippers from both regions converged in Persian Gulf ports, especially on the island of Bahrain (known as Dilmun to the Sumerians). Numerous small Indus-style artefacts have been recovered at locations on Bahrain and further down the coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Oman. Stamp seals produced in Bahrain have been found at sites in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, strengthening the likelihood that the island may have acted as a redistribution point for goods coming from Mesopotamia and the Indus area….There are hints from the digs at Ur, a major Sumerian city-state on the Euphrates, that some Indus Valley merchants and artisans (bead makers) may have established communities in Mesopotamia.

The world’s first dock at Lothal (2400 BCE) was located away from the main current to avoid deposition of silt.[17] Modern oceanographers have observed that the Harappans must have possessed great knowledge relating to tides in order to build such a dock on the ever-shifting course of the Sabarmati, as well as exemplary hydrography and maritime engineering.[17] This was the earliest known dock found in the world, equipped to berth and service ships.[17] It is speculated that Lothal engineers studied tidal movements, and their effects on brick-built structures, since the walls are of kiln-burnt bricks.[18] This knowledge also enabled them to select Lothal’s location in the first place, as the Gulf of Khambhat has the highest tidal amplitude and ships can be sluiced through flow tides in the river estuary.[18] The engineers built a trapezoidal structure, with north-south arms of average 21.8 metres (71.5 ft), and east-west arms of 37 metres (121 ft).[18]

Excavations at Golbai Sasan in Odisha have shown a Neolithic culture dating to as early as ca. 2300 BC, followed by a Chalcolithic (copper age) culture and then an Iron Age culture starting around 900 BC. Tools found at this site indicate boat building, perhaps for coastal trade.[19] Fish bones, fishing hooks, barbed spears and harpoons show that fishing was an important part of the economy.[20] Some artefacts of the Chalcolithic period are similar to artefacts found in Vietnam, indicating possible contact with Indochina at a very early period.[19]

Early kingdoms

Indian cartography locates the Pole star, and other constellations of use in navigational charts.[21] These charts may have been in use by the beginning of the Common Era for purposes of navigation.[21] Detailed maps of considerable length describing the locations of settlements, sea shores, rivers, and mountains were also made.[22] The Periplus Maris Erythraei mentions a time when sea trade between India and Egypt did not involve direct sailings.[23] The cargo under these situations was shipped to Aden:[23]

Eudaimon Arabia was called fortunate, being once a city, when, because ships neither came from India to Egypt nor did those from Egypt dare to go further but only came as far as this place, it received the cargoes from both, just as Alexandria receives goods brought from outside and from Egypt.

It should be mentioned here that Tamil Pandya embassies were received by Augustus Caesar and Roman historians mention a total of four embassies from the Tamil country. Pliny famously mentions the expenditure of one million sestertii every year on goods such as pepper, fine cloth and gems from the southern coasts of India. He also mentions 10,000 horses shipped to this region each year. Tamil and southern Sanskrit name inscriptions have been found in Luxor in Egypt. In turn Tamil literature from the Classical period mentions foreign ships arriving for trade and paying in gold for products.

The first clear mention of a navy occurs in the mythological epic Mahabharata.[24] Historically, however, the first attested attempt to organise a navy in India, as described by Megasthenes (c. 350—290 BCE), is attributed to Chandragupta Maurya (reign 322—298 BCE).[24] The Mauryan empire (322–185 BCE) navy continued till the times of emperor Ashoka (reign 273—32 BCE), who used it to send massive diplomatic missions to Greece, Syria, Egypt, CyreneMacedonia and Epirus.[24] Following nomadic interference in Siberia—one of the sources for India’s bullion—India diverted its attention to the Malay peninsula, which became its new source for gold and was soon exposed to the world via a series of maritime trade routes.[25] The period under the Mauryan empire also witnessed various other regions of the world engage increasingly in the Indian Ocean maritime voyages.[25]

According to the historian Strabo (II.5.12.) the Roman trade with India trade initiated by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 130 BCE kept increasing.[3] Indian ships sailed to Egypt as the thriving maritime routes of Southern Asia were not under the control of a single power.[26] In India, the ports of Barbaricum (modern Karachi), BarygazaMuzirisKorkaiKaveripattinam and Arikamedu on the southern tip of India were the main centres of this trade.[27] The Periplus Maris Erythraei describes Greco—Roman merchants selling in Barbaricum “thin clothing, figured linens, topazcoralstoraxfrankincense, vessels of glass, silver and gold plate, and a little wine” in exchange for “costusbdelliumlyciumnardturquoiselapis lazuli, Seric skins, cotton cloth, silk yarn, and indigo“.[27] In Barygaza, they would buy wheat, rice, sesame oil, cotton and cloth.[27]

The Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum was involved in the Indian Ocean trade network and was influenced by Roman culture and Indian architecture.[7] Traces of Indian influences are visible in Roman works of silver and ivory, or in Egyptian cotton and silk fabrics used for sale in Europe.[6] The Indian presence in Alexandria may have influenced the culture but little is known about the manner of this influence.[6] Clement of Alexandria mentions the Buddha in his writings and other Indian religions find mentions in other texts of the period.[6] The Indians were present in Alexandria[6] and Christian and Jewish settlers from Rome continued to live in India long after the fall of the Roman Empire,[7] which resulted in Rome’s loss of the Red Sea ports,[8] previously used to secure trade with India by the Greco—Roman world since the time of the Ptolemaic dynasty.[9]

During this period, Hindu and Buddhist religious establishments of Southeast Asia came to be associated with economic activity and commerce as patrons entrusted large funds which would later be used to benefit local economy by estate management, craftsmanship and promotion of trading activities.[30] Buddhism, in particular, travelled alongside the maritime trade, promoting coinage, art and literacy.[31] This route caused the intermixing of many artistic and cultural influences, HellenisticIranianIndian and ChineseGreco-Buddhist art represents one such vivid examples of this interaction.[32] Buddha was first depicted as human in the Kushan period with intermixing of Greek and Indian elements, and the influence of this Greco-Buddhist art can be found in later Buddhist art in China and throughout countries on the Silk Road.[33] Ashoka and after him his successors of Kalinga, Pallava and Chola empires along with their vassals Pandya and Chera dynasties, as well as Vijayanagra empire all played a vital role in expanding Indianisation, extending Indian maritime trade and growth of Hinduism and Buddhism. Port of Kollam is an example of important trade port in Maritime Silk Route.

Maritime Silk Route, which flourished between the 2nd century BC and 15th century AD connected ChinaSoutheast Asia, the Indian subcontinentArabian peninsulaSomaliaEgypt and Europe.[34] Despite its association with China in recent centuries, the Maritime Silk Route was primarily established and operated by Austronesian sailors in Southeast Asia, Tamil merchants in India and Southeast Asia, Greco-Roman merchants in East AfricaIndiaCeylon and Indochina, and by Persian and Arab traders in the Arabian Sea and beyond.[35] Prior to the 10th century, the route was primarily used by Southeast Asian traders, although Tamil and Persian traders also sailed them.[35] For most of its history, Austronesian thalassocracies controlled the flow of the Maritime Silk Road, especially the polities around the straits of Malacca and Bangka, the Malay peninsula, and the Mekong delta; although Chinese records misidentified these kingdoms as being “Indian” due to the Indianization of these regions.[35] The route was influential in the early spread of Hinduism and Buddhism to the east.[36] The Maritime Silk Road developed from the earlier Austronesian spice trade networks of Islander Southeast Asians with Sri Lanka and Southern India (established 1000 to 600 BCE).[37][38]

Kalinga (in 3rd century BCE was annexed by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka) and Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1646) also established footholds in Malaya, Sumatra and Western Java.[39] Maritime history of Odisha, known as Kalinga in ancient times, started before 350 BC according to early sources. The people of this region of eastern India along the coast of the Bay of Bengal sailed up and down the Indian coast, and travelled to Indo China and throughout Maritime Southeast Asiaintroducing elements of their culture to the people with whom they traded. The 6th century Manjusrimulakalpa mentions the Bay of Bengal as ‘Kalingodra’ and historically the Bay of Bengal has been called ‘Kalinga Sagara’ (both Kalingodra and Kalinga Sagara mean Kalinga Sea), indicating the importance of Kalinga in the maritime trade.[40] The old traditions are still celebrated in the annual Bali Jatra, or Boita-Bandana festival held for five days in October / November.[41]

Textiles from India were in demand in Egypt, East Africa, and the Mediterranean between the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, and these regions became overseas markets for Indian exports.[25] In Java and Borneo, the introduction of Indian culture created a demand for aromatics, and trading posts here later served Chinese and Arab markets.[10] The Periplus Maris Erythraei names several Indian ports from where large ships sailed in an easterly direction to Chryse.[42] Products from the Maluku Islands that were shipped across the ports of Arabia to the Near East passed through the ports of India and Sri Lanka.[43] After reaching either the Indian or the Sri Lankan ports, products were sometimes shipped to East Africa, where they were used for a variety of purposes including burial rites.[43]

Indian spice exports find mention in the works of Ibn Khurdadhbeh (850), al-Ghafiqi (1150 CE), Ishak bin Imaran (907) and Al Kalkashandi (14th century).[43] Chinese traveler Xuanzang mentions the town of Puri where “merchants depart for distant countries.”[44] The Abbasid caliphate (750–1258 CE) used Alexandria, DamiettaAden and Siraf as entry ports to India and China.[45] Merchants arriving from India in the port city of Aden paid tribute in form of muskcamphorambergris and sandalwood to Ibn Ziyad, the sultan of Yemen.[45]

The Chola dynasty (200—1279) reached the peak of its influence and power during the medieval period.[46] Emperors Rajaraja Chola I (reigned 985-1014) and Rajendra Chola I (reigned 1012-1044) extended the Chola kingdom beyond the traditional limits.[47] At its peak, the Chola Empire stretched from the island of Sri Lanka in the south to the Godavari basin in the north.[48] The kingdoms along the east coast of India up to the river Ganges acknowledged Chola suzerainty.[49] Chola navies invaded and conquered Srivijaya and Srivijaya was the largest empire in Maritime Southeast Asia.[50] Goods and ideas from India began to play a major role in the “Indianization” of the wider world from this period.[51] The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia.[52] Towards the end of the 9th century, southern India had developed extensive maritime and commercial activity.[53][54] The Cholas, being in possession of parts of both the west and the east coasts of peninsular India, were at the forefront of these ventures.[55][56][57] The Tang dynasty (618–907) of China, the Srivijaya empire in Maritime Southeast Asia under the Sailendras, and the Abbasid caliphate at Baghdad were the main trading partners.[58]

Srivijaya empire, an Indianised Hindu-Buddhist empire founded at Palembang in 682 CE as indicated in Tang records, rose to dominate the trade in the region around the straits and the South China Sea emporium by controlling the trade in luxury aromatics and Buddhist artifacts from West Asia to a thriving Tang market.[35](p12) Chinese records also indicate that the early Chinese Buddhist pilgrims to South Asia booked passage with the Austronesian ships that traded in Chinese ports. Books written by Chinese monks like Wan Chen and Hui-Lin contain detailed accounts of the large trading vessels from Southeast Asia dating back to at least the 3rd century CE.[59]

One of the Pandya empire (3rd century BCE to 14th century CE) ruler Parantaka Nedumjadaiyan (765–790) and the Chera dynasty (absorbed into the Pandya political system by 10th/11th century AD) were a close ally of the Pallavas (275 CE to 897 CE).[60] Pallavamalla Nadivarman defeated the Pandya Varaguna with the help of a Chera king.[60] Cultural contacts between the Pallava court and the Chera country were common.[60] Eventually, Cheras dynasty were subsumed by Pandya dynasty, which in turn was subsumed by the Pallava dynasty.

Kollam (also called Quilon or Desinganadu’s) in coastal Kerala become operational in AD.825,[61] and has a high commercial reputation since the days of the Phoenicians and Romans,[62] The ruler of Kollam (who were vassals of pandya dynasty who in turn later became vassals of Chola dynasty) also used to exchange the embassies with Chinese rulers and there was flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam.[63] The Indian commercial connection with Southeast Asia proved vital to the merchants of Arabia and Persia between the 7th and 8th centuries CE,[10] and merchant Sulaiman of Siraf in Persia (9th Century) found Kollam to be the only port in India, touched by the huge Chinese junks, on his way from Carton of Persian Gulf.[63] Marco Polo, the great Venician traveller, who was in Chinese service under Kublakhan in 1275, visited Kollam and other towns on the west coast, in his capacity as a Chinese mandarin.[63] Fed by the Chinese trade, port of Kollam was also mentioned by Ibn Battuta in the 14th century as one of the five Indian ports he had seen in the course of his travels during twenty-four years.[64]

Growth and development of agriculture in Kerala hinterlands brought about plentiful availability of surplus. The excess agricultural crops and grains were bartered for other necessities in angadis or trading centres, turning the ports to cities. Traders used coins especially in foreign trade to export spices, muslin, cottonpearls and precious stones to countries of the west and received the wine, olive oil, amphora and terracotta pots from there. Egyptian dinars and Venetian ducats (1284-1797) were in great demand in medieval Kerala’s international trade.


The Arabs and the Chinese were important trade partners of medieval Kerala. Arab trade and navigation attained a new enthusiasm since the birth and spread of Islam. Four gold coins of Umayyad Caliphate (665-750 CE) found in Kothamangalam testifies the visit of Arab traders to Kerala in that period. With the formation of Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258 CE) the Golden Age of Islam began and trade flourished as the religion was favorably disposed towards trade. Ninth century on wards the Arab trade to Malabar was raised to new esteems and saw many outposts of Muslim merchants. This, later on, became a strong element of Kerala Maritime History.

The Trade with Malabar resulted in the drainage of Chinese gold in abundance that the Song dynasty (1127-1279) prohibited the use of gold, silver and bronze in foreign trade in 1219 and silk fabrics and porcelain was ordered to be bartered against foreign goods. Pepper, coconut, fish, betel nuts, etc were exported from Malabar in exchange for gold, silver, colored satin, blue and white porcelain, musk, quicksilver and camphor from China.